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  • (Wetland indicator code: OBL) New England Distribution and Conservation Status Distribution Connecticut present Maine present Massachusetts present New Hampshire present Rhode Island present Vermont present Conservation Status Exact status definitions[gobotany.newenglandwild.org]
  • List of all 11 species of the genus Wolffia used in the present investigations. Determination of Wolffia species on morphological basis alone is very difficult and sometimes not reliable ( Landolt, 1994 ).[doi.org]
  • Morphological Characteristic Spirodela intermedia Spirodela polyrrhiza Landoltia punctata Formerly Spirodela punctata Lemna All Species Prophyllum At Base Of Frond Present Present But Reduced Absent Number of Roots Penetrating Prophyllum S. intermedia[waynesword.palomar.edu]
  • Unisexual flowers present. Plants monoecious (usually), or dioecious (rarely). Inflorescence, floral, fruit and seed morphology.[delta-intkey.com]
  • Plants of very peculiar vegetative form; thalloid (thallus small to minute, globular, flat or linear, with one (Wolffioideae) or two (Lemnoïdeae) budding pouches, raphides present with mucilage cells in Lemnoïdeae only, xylem without vesses, phloem transfer[mobot.org]
  • Individuals with disabilities are encouraged to direct suggestions, comments, or complaints concerning any accessibility issues with Rutgers websites to accessibility@rutgers.edu or complete the Report Accessibility Barrier / Provide Feedback form.[news.rutgers.edu]
  • Your display settings disabled the content of this page (blocked by marine only ). Change the options on top of this page if desired. Back to taxon search[marinespecies.org]
  • Li & Zhou 2007; Von Mering & Kadereit 2010: support weak; Ross et al. 2015: most analyses; Petersen et al. 2015; H.-T. Li et al. 2019: support weak). In a study involving 22 taxa and 79 protein-coding plastid genes, Y.[mobot.org]
  • Yes Sometimes Confused With Lemna turionifera : small, rootless turions 0.8-1.6 mm in diameter sometimes produced and parent plants with red to purple coloration on lower surface (vs.[gobotany.newenglandwild.org]
  • They also provide shade and, although frequently confused with them, can reduce certain light-generated growths of photoautotrophic algae .[enacademic.com]
  • They also provide shade and, although frequently confused with them, can reduce certain light-generated growths of photoautotrophic algae. Duckweed is also eaten by humans in some parts of Southeast Asia.[en.wikipedia.org]


  • Ammonia toxicity to the duckweed Lemna gibba used for the treatment of wastewater.[mobot.org]
  • International conference; 2nd, Recycling the resource: Ecological engineering for wastewater treatment; 1995; Wadenswil; Switzerland Recycling the resource: Ecological engineering for wastewater treatment copy delivery commercial customers academic customers[tib.eu]
  • Performance of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) on different types of wastewater treatment. Journal of Environmental Biology, 28 (2), 307–314. Frédéric, M., Samir, L., Louise, M., Abdelkrim, A. (2006).[journals.uran.ua]
  • "Duckweed Wastewater Treatment and Reuse for Fodder (West Bank)". Idrc.ca. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011. Iqbal, Sascha (March 1999).[en.wikipedia.org]
  • For example, a farmer could pay the city or municipality for its wastewater and have it transported to his farm, a concept that some people refer to as duckweed-based wastewater treatment, Stomp says.[biomassmagazine.com]


  • […] type Status report message null description The server encountered an internal error that prevented it from fulfilling this request.[xa.yimg.com]
  • John Eastman writes about this phenomenon in The Book of Swamp and Bog : “Thick blankets of duckweed can shade pond bottoms, preventing adequate photosynthesis and making life difficult or impossible for submersed plants and animals…however, this is often[awkwardbotany.com]
  • Duckweed's bioremediation properties allow it to capture pollutants and prevent their release into the air. The plant could save farmers money because they wouldn't have to purchase expensive desalination equipment for their lagoons.[biomassmagazine.com]
  • A simple method for analyzing the effects of algae on the growth of Lemna and preventing algal growth in duckweed bioassays. Arch Hydrobiol. 157(4): 567-575. DOI: 10.1127/0003-9136/2003/0157-0567 Szabó S., Roijackers R., Scheffer M. 2005.[revistas.unal.edu.co]
  • Carbon neutral fuels help prevent too much CO2 from accumulating in the atmosphere.[americanenergyindependence.com]

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