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Lethal Occipital Encephalocele - Skeletal Dysplasia Syndrome


  • Therefore, we are describing an autopsy based approach to congenital malformations particularly in context with the present case. The patient presented with encephalocele through posterior fontanelle.[jfsmonline.com]
  • Both paraneoplastic and nonparaneoplastic autoimmune limbic encephalitis can present clinically and radiologically in a manner similar to that of viral encephalitis, particularly HSV.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Cellebellum not involved 3 types Alobar(worse) moneventricle, fused thalami, absence of falx cerebri Semilobar- partial separation of ventricles&hemispheres with occipital lobe present incomplete fused thalami Lobar(best...) normal separation of thalami[brainscape.com]
  • An outer layer of glial cells may be present.[atlases.muni.cz]
  • Patients typically present clinical symptoms between the ages of… Continue Reading BridgeBio Pharma Raises 299 Million January 23, 2019 By Daniel S.[globalgenes.org]
Respiratory Distress
  • distress Abnormal bleeding Short nose Thoracic dysplasia Polysplenia Enlarged kidney Edema Hepatic steatosis Omphalocele Renal dysplasia Limb undergrowth Short neck Patchy variation in bone mineral density Severe generalized osteoporosis Sternal punctate[mendelian.co]
  • An infant with a large hernia presents in the first minutes to hours of life with severe respiratory distress. Surgical correction of the defect is performed immediately.[atlases.muni.cz]
  • Congenital onset Neurodevelopmental delay Immunodeficiency Recurrent infections Retrognathia Muscular hypotonia of the trunk Acrania Death in infancy Decreased antibody level in blood Focal seizures Chronic diarrhea Lymphopenia Inflammation of the large[mendelian.co]
  • Glucose intolerance Visual field defect Cone-shaped epiphyses of the phalanges of the hand Bell-shaped thorax Flexion contracture Respiratory insufficiency Atrial septal defect Patent ductus arteriosus Acidosis Diabetes mellitus Abnormal heart morphology Jaundice[mendelian.co]
Gingival Overgrowth
  • overgrowth Opacification of the corneal stroma Horseshoe kidney Hyperbilirubinemia Elevated alkaline phosphatase Nevus Hypoplasia of penis Arnold-Chiari malformation Decreased skull ossification Cataract Motor delay Bilateral talipes equinovarus Hearing[mendelian.co]
  • Etiology: vascular occlusion diffuse hypoxic-ischemic brain necrosis pathology of twinning (intrauterine demise of the monochorionic co-twin produces an episode of severe hypotension in the surviving twin) prenatal infections (toxoplasmosis, CMV, herpes[atlases.muni.cz]
  • Patchy variation in bone mineral density Severe generalized osteoporosis Sternal punctate calcifications Anterior rib punctate calcifications Supernumerary vertebral ossification centers Laryngeal calcification Spasticity Bulbous nose Total cataract Hyperreflexia[mendelian.co]
  • Clinical signs: normal head circumference at birth, normal face seizures, deafness, blindness, hyperreflexia, poor body temperature control, respiratory problems, spastic quadruparesis the condition is uniformly fatal, affected infants die in the first[atlases.muni.cz]


  • It is suggested that a complete perinatal workup including necropsy can lead to a precise diagnosis in most cases.[file.scirp.org]
Mediastinal Shift
  • Macroscopic appearance: 21-week fetus congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of inferior and middle lobe of the right lung mediastinal shift hypoplastic left lung ascites Pictures Hydrops, large abdomen (ascites): Hydrops, large abdomen (ascites),[atlases.muni.cz]
  • […] the liver Congenital hepatic fibrosis Pathologic fracture Meningocele Esophageal varix Abnormality of abdomen morphology Aplasia/Hypoplasia of the cerebellum Prominent metopic ridge Occipital encephalocele Retinal coloboma Cephalocele Myelomeningocele Poikilocytosis[mendelian.co]
  • Lesions arising later in the third trimestr and perinatal period heal with gliosis but without abnormal gyral pattern.[atlases.muni.cz]


  • Food and Drug Administration has chosen Wave Life Sciences’ planned phase 2/3 study of suvodirsen, its lead experimental therapy for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, to break new ground.[globalgenes.org]
  • Given the rarity of these diseases, the treatments outlined in the abstracts are not always evidence based. The information in the abstracts isnot intended to replace existing local, regional or country specific recommendations and guidelines.[orpha.net]
  • It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.[uniprot.org]
  • Treatment of manifestations: Management focuses on the parents' wishes for provision of comfort-care for the newborn. Newborns require respiratory support (with tracheostomy and ventilation) to survive.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • An accurate and early syndromic diagnosis of congenital malformations is of vital importance, as late diagnosis can result in a delay in intervention and treatment of accompanying anomalies such as congenital heart defects or endocrine disorders.[centogene.com]


  • […] choroid cyst after 28 weeks average life span 5 days Single umbilical artery Associated anomalies Omphalocele, diaphragmatic hernia, hydronephrosis, enlarged cisterna magna Labs Decreased MS-AFP Decreased hCG Decreased UE3 Trisomy 13 Patau's Syndrome Poor Prognosis[brainscape.com]
  • Ectopia cordis is quite rare and has poor prognosis.[atlases.muni.cz]
  • . · Kniest's dysplasia- Autosomal dominant kyphoscoliosis, short trunk, broad thorax. prognosis usually good.[usdoc.co.il]
  • […] posta nei confronti di: - rene policistico autosomico recessivo - trisomia 13 - SLOS ( Smith Lemli Opitz Syndrome ) - sindrome idroletale - sindrome di Joubert - sindrome di Senior Loken - sindrome orofaciodigitale tipo I - BBS (Bardet-Biedl Syndrome) Prognosi[med2000eco.it]


  • In most cases the etiology is unknown , probably multifactorial.[atlases.muni.cz]
  • They are organised into groups, and further divided into clinical, etiological or histopathological sub-types.[orpha.net]
  • What are the etiologies of echogenic bowel? 1.[cram.com]
  • Young, I.D. , O’Reilly , K.M. and Kendall , C.H. (1986) Etiological Heterogeneity in Sirenomelia. Fetal & Pediatric Pa- thology, 5, 31-43.[file.scirp.org]
  • In the AMEs, there is not a univocal correspondence between specific imaging patterns and autoantibodies but sometimes the MR abnormalities can help to suggest specific paraneoplastic or nonparaneoplastic etiologies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • Genetic epidemiology and nonsyndromic structural birth defects: from candidate genes to epigenetics. JAMA pediatrics , 168(4), 371-377. Parker SE, Mai CT, Canfield MA, Rickard R, Wang Y, Meyer RE, Correa A (2010).[centogene.com]
  • […] of Bergen, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Bergen (Norway); Sera, Francesco [University College London Institute of Child Health, Medical Research Council Centre of Epidemiology[worldwidescience.org]
  • Epidemiology of osteochondrodysplasias: changing trends due to advances in prenatal diagnosis. Am J Med Genet 1996;61: Camera G, Mastroiacovo P. Birth prevalence of skeletal dysplasias in the Italian multicentric monitoring system for birth defects.[docplayer.net]
  • Clinical epidemiology of skeletal dysplasias in South America.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Mitchell, L.E. (2005) Epidemiology of Neural Tube Defects. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C―Seminars in Medical Genetics, 135, 88-94.[file.scirp.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • ., genetic/ genomic role, underlying pathophysiology, early prediction or prevent (primary/secondary) and feasibility of pharmacotherapy.[file.scirp.org]


  • Plays a central role in germ cell development: acts by degrading RA in the developing testis, preventing STRA8 expression, thereby leading to delay of meiosis.[uniprot.org]
  • After birth of one child with NTD a couple should be counseled about prevention in subsequent pregnancies; primary prevention by periconceptional folic acid supplementation and secondary prevention by antenatal ma- ternal serum alpha feto protein (MSAFP[file.scirp.org]
  • All affected infants with short-rib polydactyly syndrome have severe pulmonary hypoplasia that prevents extrauterine survival. Chromosomes are usually normal. Genes responsible for these conditions have not yet been identified.[mhmedical.com]
  • There have been some animal studies featuring chemical and genetic inhibition of the p53 protein in the attempt to prevent TCS, but so far, no effective method of prevention in humans exists [ 47 ].[degruyter.com]
  • Entanglement of the umbilical cord around the fetal neck -found in approx 25% of pregnancies Vasa previa Fetal blood vessels are between the presenting part and the internal cervical os Functions of amniotic fluid Cushion to protect fetus Allows for movement Prevents[flashcardbook.com]

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