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Louping Ill

Louping ill is primarily a veterinarian infection caused by the Louping Ill virus, belonging to the group of flaviviruses. Its natural reservoirs are sheep, goats, pigs and several other animals, but in rare cases, the human infection may occur. Nonspecific symptoms and rare reports of fatal encephalitis are documented, but decades have passed since the last confirmed case. Advanced molecular testing is necessary to establish the diagnosis.


Presentation

No case of Louping Ill has been reported in the last 20 years, and only 31 individuals with a confirmed infection have been documented until the 1990's, but many cases are assumed to be undiagnosed due to lack of clinical suspicion and, until recently, the absence of rapid diagnostic methods that could identify the virus [1] [2] [3]. Louping Ill virus (LIV), classified into flaviviruses and considered as a similar pathogen to tick-borne encephalitis viruses (TIBV), is the causative agent of Louping Ill, and is transmitted by ixodes ricinus, known as the sheep tick [4] [5]. LIV primarily causes a potentially fatal infection in livestock (sheep, cattle, pigs, goats) but also other animals (certain canine, horse, deer and red grouse species) residing in the United Kingdom (mainly Scotland and Ireland) [1] [2], but its detection in Spain, Norway, Turkey and other European countries has been documented [2] [4]. Similarly to animal inoculation, humans contract the virus through a tick bite, but the occupational exposure seems to be the single most important risk factor. Sheepherders, slaughterhouse workers, veterinarians, butchers and laboratory personnel working with animal samples are at an increased risk for contracting LIV [1] [2] [4] [5]. Human infection can present in numerous ways, and four clinical syndromes are mentioned in the literature - an influenza-like illness comprised of nonspecific constitutional symptoms and fever, hemorrhagic fever, and a central nervous system (CNS) infection, either as encephalitis, characterized by confusion, stupor, ataxia, paralysis, or even coma, or a poliomyelitis-like illness [1] [3] [5].

Biphasic Fever
  • Wikipedia: Louping ill Louping-ill Ovine Encephalomyelitis Infectious Encephalomyelitis of Sheep Trembling-ill an acute viral disease primarily of sheep that is characterized by a biphasic fever, depression, ataxia, muscular incoordination, tremors, posterior[memidex.com]
  • Freebase (0.00 / 0 votes) Rate this definition: Louping ill Louping-ill is an acute viral disease primarily of sheep that is characterized by a biphasic fever, depression, ataxia, muscular incoordination, tremors, posterior paralysis, coma, and death.[definitions.net]
  • Specialty Veterinary medicine Louping-ill is an acute viral disease primarily of sheep that is characterized by a biphasic fever, depression, ataxia, muscular incoordination, tremors, posterior paralysis, coma, and death.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Definition Louping-ill (Ll) is an acute viral disease primarily of sheep that is characterized by a biphasic fever, depression, ataxia, muscular incoordination, tremors, posterior paralysis, coma, and death.[web.archive.org]
Turkish
  • Look up "louping ill" at Merriam-Webster Look up "louping ill" at dictionary.com In other languages: Spanish French Italian Portuguese Romanian German Dutch Swedish Russian Polish Czech Greek Turkish Chinese Japanese Korean Arabic Advertisements Word[wordreference.com]
  • There are four subtypes: British, Irish, Spanish and Turkish.[en.wikipedia.org]
Constitutional Symptom
  • Human infection can present in numerous ways, and four clinical syndromes are mentioned in the literature - an influenza-like illness comprised of nonspecific constitutional symptoms and fever, hemorrhagic fever, and a central nervous system (CNS) infection[symptoma.com]
Anorexia
  • Initial clinical signs in naturally infected sheep are nonspecific and include fever, which may reach 42 C (107.6 F), depression, anorexia, and possibly constipation.[web.archive.org]
Myalgia
  • Section XI - Human Disease In Nature Significant Residual Significant Death Subclinical Significant Overt Disease Significant Clinical Manifestations Fever, headache, prostration, conjunctival inflammation, stiff neck, myalgia, arthralgia, CNS signs ([wwwn.cdc.gov]
Arthralgia
  • Section XI - Human Disease In Nature Significant Residual Significant Death Subclinical Significant Overt Disease Significant Clinical Manifestations Fever, headache, prostration, conjunctival inflammation, stiff neck, myalgia, arthralgia, CNS signs ([wwwn.cdc.gov]
Ataxia
  • Significant Death Subclinical Significant Overt Disease Significant Clinical Manifestations Fever, headache, prostration, conjunctival inflammation, stiff neck, myalgia, arthralgia, CNS signs (including encephalitis, CNS pleocytosis, rash, vomiting, and ataxia[wwwn.cdc.gov]
  • Wikipedia: Louping ill Louping-ill Ovine Encephalomyelitis Infectious Encephalomyelitis of Sheep Trembling-ill an acute viral disease primarily of sheep that is characterized by a biphasic fever, depression, ataxia, muscular incoordination, tremors, posterior[memidex.com]
  • Freebase (0.00 / 0 votes) Rate this definition: Louping ill Louping-ill is an acute viral disease primarily of sheep that is characterized by a biphasic fever, depression, ataxia, muscular incoordination, tremors, posterior paralysis, coma, and death.[definitions.net]
  • […] syndromes are mentioned in the literature - an influenza-like illness comprised of nonspecific constitutional symptoms and fever, hemorrhagic fever, and a central nervous system (CNS) infection, either as encephalitis, characterized by confusion, stupor, ataxia[symptoma.com]
  • Specialty Veterinary medicine Louping-ill is an acute viral disease primarily of sheep that is characterized by a biphasic fever, depression, ataxia, muscular incoordination, tremors, posterior paralysis, coma, and death.[en.wikipedia.org]
Meningism
  • Gross Lesions Wth the exception of possible congestion of meningeal vessels, there is no pathognomonic gross lesion.[web.archive.org]
  • A87.0 Enteroviral meningitis A87.1 Adenoviral meningitis Reimbursement claims with a date of service on or after October 1, 2015 require the use of ICD-10-CM codes.[icd10data.com]
Dysarthria
  • Death Subclinical Significant Overt Disease Significant Clinical Manifestations Fever, headache, prostration, conjunctival inflammation, stiff neck, myalgia, arthralgia, CNS signs (including encephalitis, CNS pleocytosis, rash, vomiting, and ataxia, dysarthria[wwwn.cdc.gov]

Workup

Having in mind the nonspecific clinical presentation and a broad differential diagnosis, Louping Ill may be difficult to diagnose or even consider as the etiology of the symptoms. Through a properly obtained patient history, however, this rare but potentially life-threatening infection might be included as a possible cause. Details about occupancy and recent tick bites. as well as contact with livestock or other animals that were ill in patients who either visited or are residing in Scotland, Ireland, other areas in the United Kingdom, but also Spain and Norway can be of vital importance [1]. Despite the vital role of physical examination for every patient, findings may be nonspecific and point to an infection of the central nervous system, in which case imaging studies of the brain - either computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and subsequent lumbar puncture should be performed [1] [5]. Detection of anti-LIV immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibodies in serum (or a four-fold increase in IgG) through serology is an efficient method to detect a possible immune response against the virus, and the same procedure should be carried out in animals with whom the patient was in contact [1]. Recent advances in molecular techniques and the introduction of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has greatly aided in prompt, but also more specific detection of microorganisms in humans [1] [5]. More specifically, the reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) can amplify the viral genetic material and confirm the diagnosis [1] [5], but its very high cost makes it scarcely available. Histopathological examinations of animal tissue are used as a definite method for confirming the reservoir of infection [4].

Treatment

  • […] reduction of louping ill virus at the treatment site, compared to a second control site.[conservationevidence.com]
  • Louping-ill Signs & Symptoms Jane M 2019-03-14T14:59:43 01:00 Signs & Symptoms As Louping-ill belongs to the TBE group of Flaviviridae, the course of the disease, symptoms, and treatment is much the same as with TBE.[ticktwister.co.uk]
  • A document produced by the Moredun and other health organisations includes advice on treatments for tick control, biosecurity tips and wildlife and habitat management.[thecourier.co.uk]
  • Treatment There is no specific treatment for encephalitic cases of LI virus infection. Unlike sheep, cattle affected with LI may respond favorably to good nursing and symptomatic treatment.[web.archive.org]
  • Flavivirus Infections—Advances in Research and Treatment: 2012 Edition: ScholarlyBrief , ScholarlyEditions, 26 dicembre 2012, pp. 6–, ISBN 978-1-4816-1346-0 .[it.wikipedia.org]

Etiology

  • A longitudinal study of respiratory viruses and bacteria in the etiology of acute otitis media with effusion. ‏ الصفحة 57 - Isolation of St. Louis encephalitis viruses from mosquitoes in the Tampa Bay area of Florida during the epidemic of 1962. ‏[books.google.com]
  • Having in mind the nonspecific clinical presentation and a broad differential diagnosis, Louping Ill may be difficult to diagnose or even consider as the etiology of the symptoms.[symptoma.com]
  • A longitudinal study of respiratory viruses and bacteria in the etiology of acute otitis media with effusion. ‎ Página 57 - Isolation of St. Louis encephalitis viruses from mosquitoes in the Tampa Bay area of Florida during the epidemic of 1962. ‎[books.google.es]
  • Section 1 deals with the general characteristics of the host– parasite relationship, laboratory diagnosis of conditions involving an infectious etiology, antimicrobial treatment, and prevention of infectious disease.[books.google.es]
  • Etiology Louping-ill is caused by a neurotropic single-strand RNA virus of 40-50 nm that has been classified in the Flaviviridae family, Flavivirus genus (20).[web.archive.org]

Epidemiology

  • Virological epidemiology of the 1958 epidemic of Kyasanur Forest disease.[pubmedcentral.nih.gov]
  • Belikov 2 1 Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russian Federation; 2 Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russian Federation.[researcherslinks.com]
  • الصفحة 301 - Studies of the epidemiology of arthropod-borne virus infections at Mitchell River Mission, Cape York Peninsula, North Queensland. IV. Arbovirus infections of mosquitoes and mammals, 1967-1969. ‏[books.google.com]
  • Página 301 - Studies of the epidemiology of arthropod-borne virus infections at Mitchell River Mission, Cape York Peninsula, North Queensland. IV. Arbovirus infections of mosquitoes and mammals, 1967-1969. ‎[books.google.es]
  • The epidemiology, clinical picture and methods for diagnosis are detailed in this review.[www3.interscience.wiley.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Prevention [ edit ] According to a ProMED article, [3] disease in sheep has been controlled in the UK by a vaccine ( ATCvet code: QI04AA01), originally developed by Scotland's Moredun Research Institute by Prof John Russell Greig. [4] In 2009, however[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Further structural analysis suggested that MAb 4.2 may neutralize flavivirus infection by preventing the structural rearrangement required for membrane fusion during virus entry.[jvi.asm.org]
  • The focus includes pathogenic mechanisms and processes in infectious diseases; methods of diagnosis; and principles of resistance, prevention, and therapy.[books.google.es]
  • Inhibits host TYK2 and STAT2 phosphorylation, thereby preventing activation of JAK-STAT signaling pathway.[uniprot.org]
  • Accepting these cookies is a condition of using the website, so if you prevent them we cannot guarantee how our site will perform for you.[fginsight.com]

References

Article

  1. Jeffries CL, Mansfield KL, Phipps LP, et al. Louping ill virus: an endemic tick-borne disease of Great Britain. The Journal of General Virology. 2014;95(Pt 5):1005-1014.
  2. Laurenson MK, McKendrick IJ, Reid HW, Challenor R, Mathewson GK. Prevalence, spatial distribution and the effect of control measures on louping-ill virus in the Forest of Bowland, Lancashire. Epidemiol Infect. 2007;135(6):963-973.
  3. Davidson MM, Williams H, Macleod JA. Louping ill in man: a forgotten disease. J Infect. 1991;23(3):241-249.
  4. Balseiro A, Royo LJ, Martínez CP, et al. Louping Ill in Goats, Spain, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(6):976-978.
  5. Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R. Mandel, Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Churchill Livingstone; 2015.

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Last updated: 2019-07-11 22:28