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Low Molecular Weight Heparin


Presentation

  • In our 3 presented episodes of LMWH overdose, no therapeutic interventions were performed and there were no bleeding complications.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pathologist
  • As the clinical history of injections is often not provided in the requisition form, pathologists should be aware of this adverse effect from LMWH to avoid misdiagnosis and excessive treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Splenomegaly
  • A 69-year-old woman with splenic marginal-zone lymphoma was admitted with progressive abdominal pain and splenomegaly as the suspected cause of pain. Rituximab treatment (375 mg/m) had been initiated on the day of admission.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Exertional Dyspnea
  • She presented at 36 weeks' gestation with 24 h of exertional dyspnea, and was in pulmonary edema. Transthoracic echocardiography suggested valve thrombosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Regurgitation
  • A 31-year-old primigravida had a 27-mm CarboMedics mitral valve implanted previously for mitral regurgitation. The patient had decided to take low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and aspirin throughout her pregnancy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Visual Acuity Decreased
  • In 2, visual acuity decreased due to macular ischemia. Occlusion recurred in 1 2.5 months after the suspension of initial treatment. This patient is again being treated with fondaparinux 2.5 mg. No hemorrhaging occurred.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Vaginal Bleeding
  • We report intrauterine subdural hemorrhage in a preterm infant delivered by cesarean section at 32 weeks following vaginal bleeding of a mother treated with low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) for deep vein thrombosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Altered Mental Status
  • Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) constitutes a well-described clinical entity, classically entailing characteristic edematous lesions on imaging studies in a patient with altered mental status, visual disturbances, headache, and seizures[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Agitation
  • On postoperative day 15, she developed acute onset altered mental status with significant agitation and nonsensical speech and was found to have brain imaging findings suggestive of CVST.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Bicytopenia
  • During the postoperative period, diagnoses of systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome were made because of some clinical and laboratory features (seizure, nephritis, bicytopenia, positive nuclear antibody, and positive antiphospholipid[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Trophoblastic Cells
  • There is evidence that LMWH alters the expression of human HBEGF in trophoblast cells, which regulates human trophoblast pathophysiology. HBEGF, itself, is capable of increasing trophoblast survival and invasiveness.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • The median age was 62.9 years, and 59 patients had hepatocellular carcinoma. The overall recanalization rate was 61.5%.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • The objective of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of initial plus extended treatment with apixaban versus LMWH/VKA for either initial treatment only or initial plus extended treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • The prognosis is guided by pancytopenia, leukemic transformation and thrombosis which are the dominant complications. Data regarding protocol management during pregnancy in the context of myelofibrosis are insufficient.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Even though worsening symptoms may suggest a change in prognosis to doctors, this was not the case for patients. Most patients admitted with spinal cord compression had a good performance status (median score of 1) before admission.[bmj.com]
  • Factors altering angiogenesis may, therefore, influence these processes and thereby the prognosis of cancer patients.[cancerres.aacrjournals.org]
  • Thus, the clinical significance of these periprocedural enzyme elevations “remains somewhat controversial,” and their effect on prognosis is unclear.[onlinejacc.org]

Etiology

  • Maternal trauma during pregnancy, intrauterine infection, cerebral vascular malformation and congenital coagulopathy as known etiologies of subdural hemorrhage could be ruled out.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Many etiological factors have been proposed but none of them has been fully substantiated.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • SGLT2 inhibitors prevent HF hospitalization regardless of baseline LVEF May 9, 2019 Bruce Jancin Bruce Jancin May 9, 2019 Journal of Clinical Outcomes Management More Quizzes MDIQ Smoking, cardiovascular risk, and diabetes Obesity and cancer incidence Etiologies[jcomjournal.com]

Epidemiology

  • University Hospital Leuven, Center for Molecular and Vascular Biology, Leuven, Belgium. 6 Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. 7 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 8 Department of Clinical Epidemiology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism in Asian patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery without thromboprophylaxis. J Thromb Haemost 2005 ;3: 28 - 34 31. Leizorovicz A.[nejm.org]
  • The VTE impact assessment group in Europe (VITAE) performed epidemiological modelling of VTE in six European countries (including the UK), and estimated there were 465,715 cases of DVT, 295,982 cases of PE and 370,012 VTE-related deaths over the six countries[pharmaceutical-journal.com]
  • The natural history and epidemiology of venous thrombosis. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1994;36:423–38. ... 2. Hirsh J. Heparin. N Engl J Med. 1991;324:1565–74. 3. Warkentin TE, Levine MN, Hirsch J, Horsewood P, Roberts RS, Gent M, et al.[aafp.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology of DIC in patients with prostate cancer is not completely understood. We present here a case of chronic DIC in a patient with metastatic androgen independent prostate cancer.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Physiological variations in thyroid hormones: physiological and pathophysiological considerations. Clin Chem 1996 ; 42 : 135 -139. Keffer JH . Preanalytical considerations in testing thyroid function. Clin Chem 1996 ; 42 : 125 -134.[clinchem.aaccjnls.org]

Prevention

  • This study demonstrated that subcutaneous injection of LMWH can prevent VTE after gastrointestinal tumor surgery and provide a new alternative for VTE prevention.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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