A corpus luteum cyst develops from a corpus luteum that does not dissolve after ovulation.
This clinical presentation of CL cyst is variable. While some patients with ruptured cysts exhibit mild unilateral discomfort, others will experience acute unilateral pelvic pain that is sharp in nature. Furthermore, the pain may occur with sexual intercourse, trauma, or physical activity  .
Remarkable findings may include peritoneal signs, abdominal distention, and pelvic tenderness.
- Third Trimester Bleeding
A case of a large persistent corpus luteum cyst associated with third trimester bleeding is presented. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
trimester bleeding. ( 97327 ) Miller E.I....Applegate J.W. 1978 15 Ureteral obstruction caused by hemorrhagic corpus luteum cyst. ( 4836342 ) Shah M.S....Pellman C. 1974 16 Pelvic pneumography identifying an ovarian corpus luteum cyst. ( 5824595 ) Lang [malacards.org]
- Adnexal Mass
Abstract A young woman presented with an asymptomatic unilateral adnexal mass at six weeks postpartum. Her abdomen and pelvis had been considered unremarkable upon examination at parturition, at which time no adnexal masses were palpated. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Rockall and Isabelle Thomassin-Naggara, A systematic approach to adnexal masses discovered on ultrasound: the ADNEx MR scoring system, Abdominal Radiology, (2017). [doi.org]
Reliability of adnexal mass mobility in distinguishing possible ectopic pregnancy from corpus luteum cysts. [medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Gynecologic causes of RUQ pain include perihepatitis and adhesions between the liver and abdominal wall due to gonococcal and chlamydial salpingitis (Fitzhugh-Curtis syndrome). [ijcasereportsandimages.com]
Valentin, Ultrasound for diagnosing acute salpingitis: a prospective observational diagnostic study, Human Reproduction, 28, 6, (1569), (2013). H. Marret and M. [doi.org]
The workup consists of the patient's presentation, history, physical exam, and the relevant studies. The clinical assessment should rule out differential diagnoses such as ectopic pregnancy, acute appendicitis, etc.
A serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG) - level must be obtained to determine the pregnancy status and the potential for an ectopic pregnancy  . A complete blood count (CBC) is another important test.
Pelvic/abdominal ultrasonography is the initial imaging study of choice. This modality demonstrates the presence of free hypoechoic fluid  . Color doppler is used to reflect the vascularity of the cyst, which may display the "ring of fire" sign.
A computed tomography (CT) scan depicts the CL cyst as a well-circumscribed, unilocular adnexal mass. The lesion is usually less than 3 cm and features a thick wall and peripheral vascularization .
Hemodynamically stable patients can be managed conservatively through monitoring of the vital signs and hemoglobin levels, repeat imaging, and pain management .
Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are not used for the treatment of functional ovarian cysts since they have not proven to be effective .
The CL cyst arises from the failure of the corpus luteum to regress after fertilization . It may also be caused by clomiphene, which is a fertility drug that induces ovulation.
Once an ovum is released from the mature follicle during ovulation, the remnants of the latter, known as corpus luteum, will secrete progesterone in anticipation and preparation of a pregnancy. If conception does not occur, the CL should spontaneously involute a few days after ovulation. Failure to dissolve will cause the CL to collect fluid and blood and form into a cyst. The latter has the potential to rupture.
OCPs can prevent the formation of functional ovarian cysts.
A corpus luteum (CL) cyst is one of two types of functional ovarian cysts. The clinical presentation of women with this cyst ranges from no symptoms to severe abdominal and pelvic pain. Complications include cyst rupture, which may have serious consequences. Diagnosis is achieved through evaluation of the clinical manifestations, the physical exam, and the appropriate studies. Management depends on the hemodynamic stability and overall picture. Prompt surgery is warranted in cases with hemoperitoneum.
A corpus luteal (CL) cyst is a type of ovarian cyst. The clinical presentation ranges from no symptoms to severe abdominal and pelvic pain. Diagnosis is achieved through evaluation of the signs and symptoms, physical exam, and studies such as a pregnancy test, ultrasound, etc. The treatment depends on the hemodynamic stability and overall picture. Prompt surgery is warranted in cases with serious hemorrhage.
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