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Lymph Node Hyperplasia

Adenopathy


Presentation

  • A case of giant lymph node hyperplasia presenting as a lump in the neck is reported together with a review of the literature relating to the presentation of this unusual disorder in the head and neck.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A review of the literature, histopathological characteristics and differential diagnosis is also presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A humoral factor produced by the lymph tumor of the patient may have been responsible for the immunologic alterations he presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The dichotomy between these two subtypes is not absolute, with considerable clinical overlap occurring among patients presenting with generalized disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia (AFLNH) is a condition of uncertain aetiology usually presenting with mediastinal lymphadenopathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fever of Unknown Origin
  • One patient's disease had a subacute course with fevers of unknown origin, mucocutaneous candidiasis, and progressive thrombocytopenia, while the other patient's disease had a fulminant course with anemia, thrombocytopenia, and splenic lymphoma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pseudotumor
  • Abstract Four women with multicentric angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia had a distinct clinical syndrome characterized by peripheral neuropathy, pseudotumor cerebri, IgA dysproteinemia, and thrombocytosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Respiratory Insufficiency
  • Two months after the operation, the patient was readmitted with severe cardiac insufficiency, acute renal failure and bronchopneumonia, which progressed to acute respiratory insufficiency, sepsis and death.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Xanthoma
  • Abstract A patient is described who had generalized plane xanthomas, cutaneous vasculitis, peliosis hepatis, and intraabdominal giant lymph node hyperplasia of the plasma cell type.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • He presented with weight loss, hepatomegaly, periorbital xanthomas, anemia, accelerated erythrosedimentation rate, hypoalbuminemia, hypergammaglobulinemia at the expense of immunoglobulin G (IgG), high titers of autoantibodies, and increase of serum alkaline[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cutaneous Manifestation
  • A review is presented of the cutaneous manifestations of giant lymph node hyperplasia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Xanthelasma
  • Abstract We present a new case of hepatic sinusoidal dilatation associated to giant lymph node hyperplasia or Castleman's disease in a 23-year-old patient with xanthelasmas and history of celiac disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Neck Swelling
  • Cerviral lymphadenopathy and other neck swelling, in an introduction to the symptoms and signs of surgical disease. 2nd ed. London, Arnold, 1991, pp.249-56. 5. Aird, I.[jpma.org.pk]
Meningism
  • Although uncommon, the localized form of this disease can manifest in the central nervous system, typically as a meningeal-based intracranial lesion. Castleman's disease involving the spine is exceedingly rare.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Frontal Headache
  • Abstract A 30-year-old woman, who, since the age of 20, had epileptic seizures, was hospitalized in 1972 because of frontal headaches, nausea, and vomiting.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • An evaluation of the probability of malignant causes and the effectiveness of physicians' workup. J Fam Pract. 1988;27:373–6. 5. Kelly CS, Kelly RE Jr. Lymphadenopathy in children. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1998;45:875–88. 6.[aafp.org]
  • A complete clinical workup of the patient was done. Laboratory investigations revealed serum bilirubin (1.1 mg/dl); direct (0.6 mg/dl); alkaline phosphatase 208 IU/L; ALT 64IU/L.[cancerjournal.net]
Thrombocytosis
  • A patient presenting with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms and a history of myocardial infarction was found to have ascites, hepatosplenomegaly, para-aortic lymphadenopathy, thrombocytosis, and a paraproteinaemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Four women with multicentric angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia had a distinct clinical syndrome characterized by peripheral neuropathy, pseudotumor cerebri, IgA dysproteinemia, and thrombocytosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • His clinical findings included a syndrome of severe hypochromic microcytic anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytosis, hypoferremia, hypergammaglobulinemia, and growth failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hyperprolactinemia
  • Endocrinologic abnormalities included decreased testosterone with elevated luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, as well as hyperprolactinemia and possible hypothyroidism.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cytopenia
  • The laboratory findings included peripheral blood cytopenias, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, and renal and hepatic dysfunction.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Liver Biopsy
  • A liver biopsy showed sinusoidal dilatation. Fifteen months later, a computed axial tomography showed a retroperitoneal tumor that turned out to be a giant lymph node hyperplasia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Awareness of this possibility may help avoid invasive procedures and over-treatment. Copyright 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Spine surgeons should be aware of this diagnosis as it has treatment and follow-up implications that differ from the neoplasms it can mimic. Complete surgical excision is an effective treatment for solitary lesions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Fourteen similar cases have been reported in the literature; however, to our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment with plasma-pheresis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Complete remission was achieved with corticosteroid treatment and repeat kidney biopsy 22 months later showed complete resolution of the renal pathology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • She developed diabetes mellitus at the age of 29 yrs after she had received oral steroid treatment for one year. The nephrotic syndrome supervened another year later. Her kidneys were enlarged before the onset of diabetes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Generalized or multicentric disease indicates a poor prognosis with short survival, with the neuropathic variant possessing resistance to steroids and chemotherapy and a corresponding worse prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This unusual reported association seems to have a better prognosis than the known chronic progressive form of neuropathy associated with Castleman's disease and the Crow-Fukase syndrome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A multicentric form of this disease with a poorer prognosis in comparison to the unifocal lesion has been described by Gaba et al. in 1978 [3].[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] localized to a single group of lymph nodes (unicentric) or may involve many lymph nodes and organs containing lymphoid tissue (multicentric) Enlarged lymph nodes are a common feature of this disease, and the diagnosis is usually made by a tissue biopsy The prognosis[dovemed.com]

Etiology

  • Abstract Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia is a disease of unknown etiology in which two distinct histologic forms are recognized: the hyalin vascular and the plasma-cell types.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The etiology is unknown, though immunologic studies indicate a reactive phenomenon. Radiologic studies are nonspecific. Therapy is surgical excision, which is usually curative.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman's disease) is a lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia is a heterogeneous disorder of unclear etiology and has a wide spectrum of systemic symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • EXPOSURES A complete exposure history is essential to determining the etiology of lymphadenopathy.[aafp.org]

Epidemiology

  • Essential features Clinically manifests as lymph node enlargement No clonal process No cytologic or architectural atypia Terminology Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia Reactive follicular hyperplasia Diffuse paracortical hyperplasia Sinus histiocytosis Epidemiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • […] included in the list of differential diagnosis of causes of granulomatous inflammation. [20] A comparison of our study and various other studies revealed a number of differences with respect to certain parameters which can be attributed to different epidemiological[ccij-online.org]
  • The epidemiological analysis of these cases, including the case reported here, showed that there is predilection for females, with 17 cases (77.3%) and 5 (22.7%) in males, with a ratio female: male of 3.4:1; ages ranged from 38 to 79 years, averaging[omicsonline.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • […] intrinsic or environmental antigens Most lymph node enlargements are reactive In children, most lymphadenopathies are benign; in adults, chance of malignancy increases with age Sites Any lymph node group can be affected depending on the stimulation Pathophysiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • The aetiology and management of Castleman disease at 50 years: translating pathophysiology to patient care. Br J Haematol. 2005;129(1):3-17. Nishimoto N, Kanakura Y, Aozasa K, et al.[rarediseases.org]
  • Associated infections include HIV and HHV-8, with HHV-8 thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of the disease in HIV infected patients. B.[clinicaladvisor.com]

Prevention

  • Maintenance therapy may be required to prevent relapse.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] on the extent of the disease, and an individual’s response to treatment Please find comprehensive information on Castleman Disease (CD) regarding definition, distribution, risk factors, causes, signs & symptoms, diagnosis, complications, treatment, prevention[dovemed.com]
  • Screening and prevention of colorectal cancer Source: Finnish Medical Society Duodecim This article is freely available only to users in the UK.[evidence.nhs.uk]
  • Our discussion, apoptosis, remember this is a cancer. 00:26 It will do everything in its power to upregulate anti-apoptotic factors. 00:31 So therefore, BCL-2 if upregulated prevents the release of cytochrome C from the mitochondria. 00:37 You are not[lecturio.com]

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