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Lymph Node Hyperplasia

Adenopathy


Presentation

  • A review of the literature, histopathological characteristics and differential diagnosis is also presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A humoral factor produced by the lymph tumor of the patient may have been responsible for the immunologic alterations he presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia (AFLNH) is a condition of uncertain aetiology usually presenting with mediastinal lymphadenopathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The dichotomy between these two subtypes is not absolute, with considerable clinical overlap occurring among patients presenting with generalized disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A case of GLH presenting as a solitary neck mass in a 68-year-old man is reported. There has been no recurrence during about 7 months.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Constitutional Symptom
  • The patients presented with constitutional symptoms, multifocal lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, and/or splenomegaly. The laboratory findings included peripheral blood cytopenias, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, and renal and hepatic dysfunction.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Constitutional symptoms such as fatigue, malaise, and fever, often associated with impressive cervical lymphadenopathy and atypical lymphocytosis, are seen most commonly with mononucleosis syndromes.[aafp.org]
Xanthoma
  • A patient is described who had generalized plane xanthomas, cutaneous vasculitis, peliosis hepatis, and intraabdominal giant lymph node hyperplasia of the plasma cell type.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • He presented with weight loss, hepatomegaly, periorbital xanthomas, anemia, accelerated erythrosedimentation rate, hypoalbuminemia, hypergammaglobulinemia at the expense of immunoglobulin G (IgG), high titers of autoantibodies, and increase of serum alkaline[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • An evaluation of the probability of malignant causes and the effectiveness of physicians' workup. J Fam Pract . 1988;27:373–6. 5. Kelly CS, Kelly RE Jr. Lymphadenopathy in children. Pediatr Clin North Am . 1998;45:875–88. 6.[aafp.org]
  • A complete clinical workup of the patient was done. Laboratory investigations revealed serum bilirubin (1.1 mg/dl); direct (0.6 mg/dl); alkaline phosphatase 208 IU/L; ALT 64IU/L.[cancerjournal.net]
Cytopenia
  • The laboratory findings included peripheral blood cytopenias, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, and renal and hepatic dysfunction.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Awareness of this possibility may help avoid invasive procedures and over-treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The treatment of multicentric type usually involves medications and other therapies to control the over growth of the cells. The treatment depends on the extent of the condition and whether the patient has HIV or HHV-8 or both.[gleneaglesglobalhospitals.com]
  • The authors have succeeded in documenting the current diverse roles of radiati on therapy in the treatment of benign diseases. This volume represents a significant and important contribution to our armamentarium for the treatment of these diseases.[books.google.com]
  • Spine surgeons should be aware of this diagnosis as it has treatment and follow-up implications that differ from the neoplasms it can mimic. Complete surgical excision is an effective treatment for solitary lesions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • One of the most important decisions you will make is choosing which treatment is best for you.[medigoo.com]

Prognosis

  • Generalized or multicentric disease indicates a poor prognosis with short survival, with the neuropathic variant possessing resistance to steroids and chemotherapy and a corresponding worse prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This unusual reported association seems to have a better prognosis than the known chronic progressive form of neuropathy associated with Castleman's disease and the Crow-Fukase syndrome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Multicentric or plasma cell AFLH with neuropathy was associated with resistance to steroids and chemotherapy and with a poor prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A multicentric form of this disease with a poorer prognosis in comparison to the unifocal lesion has been described by Gaba et al. in 1978 [3].[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] extent of the disease, and an individual’s response to treatment Please find comprehensive information on Castleman Disease (CD) regarding definition, distribution, risk factors, causes, signs & symptoms, diagnosis, complications, treatment, prevention, prognosis[dovemed.com]

Etiology

  • No specific etiologic factors were identified. Microscopically, the enlarged giant follicles involved the entire surface area of the lymph node, frequently assuming a serpentine configuration resulting from coalescence.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • EXPOSURES A complete exposure history is essential to determining the etiology of lymphadenopathy.[aafp.org]
  • Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman's disease) is a lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia is a heterogeneous disorder of unclear etiology and has a wide spectrum of systemic symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • : follicular, paracortical / diffuse, sinus and mixed Etiology Multiple etiologic factors, including: Bacteria Fungi Viruses Chemicals Environmental pollutants Drugs: phenytoin, allopurinol, atenolol, gold, penicillin, quinidine Altered tissue components[pathologyoutlines.com]

Epidemiology

  • Essential features Clinically manifests as lymph node enlargement No clonal process No cytologic or architectural atypia Terminology Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia Reactive follicular hyperplasia Diffuse paracortical hyperplasia Sinus histiocytosis Epidemiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • […] included in the list of differential diagnosis of causes of granulomatous inflammation. [20] A comparison of our study and various other studies revealed a number of differences with respect to certain parameters which can be attributed to different epidemiological[ccij-online.org]
  • The epidemiological analysis of these cases, including the case reported here, showed that there is predilection for females, with 17 cases (77.3%) and 5 (22.7%) in males, with a ratio female: male of 3.4:1; ages ranged from 38 to 79 years, averaging[omicsonline.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • We report two cases of GLNH treated with 2-chloro-deoxyadenosine (2-CDA), a synthetic purine analogue. 2-CDA was utilized based on its relative lymphocytic toxicity and the putative pathophysiologic process in GLNH being either hamartomatous overgrowth[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] intrinsic or environmental antigens Most lymph node enlargements are reactive In children, most lymphadenopathies are benign; in adults, chance of malignancy increases with age Sites Any lymph node group can be affected depending on the stimulation Pathophysiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • The aetiology and management of Castleman disease at 50 years: translating pathophysiology to patient care. Br J Haematol. 2005;129(1):3-17. Nishimoto N, Kanakura Y, Aozasa K, et al.[rarediseases.org]
  • Associated infections include HIV and HHV-8, with HHV-8 thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of the disease in HIV infected patients. B.[clinicaladvisor.com]

Prevention

  • […] on the extent of the disease, and an individual’s response to treatment Please find comprehensive information on Castleman Disease (CD) regarding definition, distribution, risk factors, causes, signs & symptoms, diagnosis, complications, treatment, prevention[dovemed.com]
  • This article exemplifies the AAFP 2002 Annual Clinical Focus on cancer: prevention, detection, management, support, and survival .[aafp.org]
  • An immune response is triggered when the body senses an invasion and lymphocytes attempt to prevent the foreign invader from traveling throughout the circulatory system.[wisegeekhealth.com]
  • For example, drugs can be given before or along with chemotherapy to prevent or reduce nausea and vomiting. Most side effects are temporary and go away after treatment is finished.[medigoo.com]

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