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Lymph Node Hyperplasia

Adenopathy


Presentation

  • A review of the literature, histopathological characteristics and differential diagnosis is also presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A humoral factor produced by the lymph tumor of the patient may have been responsible for the immunologic alterations he presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia (AFLNH) is a condition of uncertain aetiology usually presenting with mediastinal lymphadenopathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The dichotomy between these two subtypes is not absolute, with considerable clinical overlap occurring among patients presenting with generalized disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A case of GLH presenting as a solitary neck mass in a 68-year-old man is reported. There has been no recurrence during about 7 months.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Xanthoma
  • A patient is described who had generalized plane xanthomas, cutaneous vasculitis, peliosis hepatis, and intraabdominal giant lymph node hyperplasia of the plasma cell type.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • He presented with weight loss, hepatomegaly, periorbital xanthomas, anemia, accelerated erythrosedimentation rate, hypoalbuminemia, hypergammaglobulinemia at the expense of immunoglobulin G (IgG), high titers of autoantibodies, and increase of serum alkaline[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Withdrawn

Workup

  • An evaluation of the probability of malignant causes and the effectiveness of physicians' workup. J Fam Pract . 1988;27:373–6. 5. Kelly CS, Kelly RE Jr. Lymphadenopathy in children. Pediatr Clin North Am . 1998;45:875–88. 6.[aafp.org]
  • A complete clinical workup of the patient was done. Laboratory investigations revealed serum bilirubin (1.1 mg/dl); direct (0.6 mg/dl); alkaline phosphatase 208 IU/L; ALT 64IU/L.[cancerjournal.net]
Hyperprolactinemia
  • Endocrinologic abnormalities included decreased testosterone with elevated luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, as well as hyperprolactinemia and possible hypothyroidism.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Cytopenia
  • The laboratory findings included peripheral blood cytopenias, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, and renal and hepatic dysfunction.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Awareness of this possibility may help avoid invasive procedures and over-treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Spine surgeons should be aware of this diagnosis as it has treatment and follow-up implications that differ from the neoplasms it can mimic. Complete surgical excision is an effective treatment for solitary lesions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Fourteen similar cases have been reported in the literature; however, to our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment with plasma-pheresis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Complete remission was achieved with corticosteroid treatment and repeat kidney biopsy 22 months later showed complete resolution of the renal pathology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • She developed diabetes mellitus at the age of 29 yrs after she had received oral steroid treatment for one year. The nephrotic syndrome supervened another year later. Her kidneys were enlarged before the onset of diabetes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Generalized or multicentric disease indicates a poor prognosis with short survival, with the neuropathic variant possessing resistance to steroids and chemotherapy and a corresponding worse prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This unusual reported association seems to have a better prognosis than the known chronic progressive form of neuropathy associated with Castleman's disease and the Crow-Fukase syndrome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A multicentric form of this disease with a poorer prognosis in comparison to the unifocal lesion has been described by Gaba et al. in 1978 [3].[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] localized to a single group of lymph nodes (unicentric) or may involve many lymph nodes and organs containing lymphoid tissue (multicentric) Enlarged lymph nodes are a common feature of this disease, and the diagnosis is usually made by a tissue biopsy The prognosis[dovemed.com]

Etiology

  • Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia is a disease of unknown etiology in which two distinct histologic forms are recognized: the hyalin vascular and the plasma-cell types. Up to the current time only a few multicentric cases have been described.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The etiology is unknown, though immunologic studies indicate a reactive phenomenon. Radiologic studies are nonspecific. Therapy is surgical excision, which is usually curative.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman's disease) is a lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia is a heterogeneous disorder of unclear etiology and has a wide spectrum of systemic symptoms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • No specific etiologic factors were identified. Microscopically, the enlarged giant follicles involved the entire surface area of the lymph node, frequently assuming a serpentine configuration resulting from coalescence.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • Essential features Clinically manifests as lymph node enlargement No clonal process No cytologic or architectural atypia Terminology Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia Reactive follicular hyperplasia Diffuse paracortical hyperplasia Sinus histiocytosis Epidemiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • […] included in the list of differential diagnosis of causes of granulomatous inflammation. [20] A comparison of our study and various other studies revealed a number of differences with respect to certain parameters which can be attributed to different epidemiological[ccij-online.org]
  • The epidemiological analysis of these cases, including the case reported here, showed that there is predilection for females, with 17 cases (77.3%) and 5 (22.7%) in males, with a ratio female: male of 3.4:1; ages ranged from 38 to 79 years, averaging[omicsonline.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • […] intrinsic or environmental antigens Most lymph node enlargements are reactive In children, most lymphadenopathies are benign; in adults, chance of malignancy increases with age Sites Any lymph node group can be affected depending on the stimulation Pathophysiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • The aetiology and management of Castleman disease at 50 years: translating pathophysiology to patient care. Br J Haematol. 2005;129(1):3-17. Nishimoto N, Kanakura Y, Aozasa K, et al.[rarediseases.org]
  • Associated infections include HIV and HHV-8, with HHV-8 thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of the disease in HIV infected patients. B.[clinicaladvisor.com]

Prevention

  • Maintenance therapy may be required to prevent relapse.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] on the extent of the disease, and an individual’s response to treatment Please find comprehensive information on Castleman Disease (CD) regarding definition, distribution, risk factors, causes, signs & symptoms, diagnosis, complications, treatment, prevention[dovemed.com]
  • Our discussion, apoptosis, remember this is a cancer. 00:26 It will do everything in its power to upregulate anti-apoptotic factors. 00:31 So therefore, BCL-2 if upregulated prevents the release of cytochrome C from the mitochondria. 00:37 You are not[lecturio.com]
  • This article exemplifies the AAFP 2002 Annual Clinical Focus on cancer: prevention, detection, management, support, and survival .[aafp.org]

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