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Lymphatic Filariasis


Presentation

  • Abstract OBJECTIVE: To establish clinical and laboratory data of individuals presenting chyluria in endemic areas. RESULTS: 75 individuals were studied.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Constraints in the present manual reporting were analysed. PHP and MySQL tools were used to generate user friendly modules.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Hydrocele presented the most strongly positive association (r 0.699; p Copyright 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Large-scale treatment conducted annually for 4-6 years, treating all persons living in areas where the infection is present can interrupt the transmission cycle.[web.archive.org]
Noncompliance
  • The most important causes of systematic noncompliance were not receiving the drug and fear of side-effects.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Increased Appetite
  • appetite [ 26 ] (leading, in some settings, to 1 kg of extra weight gain and 0.6 cm extra growth in the first 5 months) [ 27 ] ; greater eye-hand coordination, learning ability and concentration [ 14 ] ; better school attendance, cognitive testing (20%[doi.org]
Larva Migrans
  • African Sleeping Sickness, Sleeping Sickness) Trypanosomiasis, American (Chagas Disease) Visceral Larva Migrans (Toxocariasis, Toxocara Infection, Ocular Larva Migrans) Waterborne Diseases Whipworm Infection (Trichuriasis, Trichuris Infection) Zoonotic[cdc.gov]
Suicidal Ideation
  • Emotional reactions included feelings of sadness, hopelessness, anger, frustration, worry, and suicidal ideation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Meningism
  • However, the drug is prescribed for patients with other severe illnesses and should not be given during outbreaks of meningitis. [12] Although up to 30% of patients experience adverse reactions after the first dose, ivermectin seems safe for large-scale[emedicine.com]
Swelling of the Scrotum
  • A small percentage of persons will develop lymphedema or, in men, a swelling of the scrotum called hydrocele . Lymphedema is caused by improper functioning of the lymph system that results in fluid collection and swelling.[cdc.gov]
  • People with the disease can suffer from lymphedema and elephantiasis and in men, swelling of the scrotum, called hydrocele. Lymphatic filariasis is a leading cause of permanent disability worldwide.[web.archive.org]
  • Men can develop hydrocele or swelling of the scrotum due to infection with one of the parasites that causes LF specifically W. bancrofti.[web.archive.org]

Workup

  • […] affecting humans and animals, caused by filariae; ie, nematode parasites of the family Filariidae. [1] Filarial parasites can be classified according to the habitat of the adult worms in the vertebral host, as follows (see Pathophysiology, Etiology, and Workup[emedicine.com]
Plasmodium Falciparum
  • BACKGROUND: Universal coverage with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is a primary control strategy against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Reducing Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in Africa: a model-based evaluation of intervention strategies. PLoS Med 7 , e1000324 (2010). 56. Okumu, F. O. & Moore, S. J.[nature.com]
  • View Article PubMed Google Scholar Burkot TR, Garner P, Paru R, Dagoro H, Barnes A, McDougall S, Wirtz RA, Campbell G, Spark R: Effects of untreated bed nets on the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax and Wuchereria bancrofti in Papua New[parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com]

Treatment

  • Treatment effects were more pronounced in the HIV co-infected subgroup, indicating that the effectiveness of antifilarial treatment was not reduced by concomitant HIV-infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • INTERPRETATION: Mild to moderate systemic AEs related to death of microfilariae are common following LF treatment. Post-treatment AEs are transient and rarely severe or serious.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESULTS: There was a 68% parasite clearance 3 months after treatment. The pre-treatment mf count differed significantly from the post-treatment mf counts at 3 months (P 0.0023), 6 months (P 0.0051), 9 months (P 0.0113) and 12 months (P 0.0008).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, after four years of treatment, the coverage has always been far below the 65% epidemiologic coverage for interrupting transmission.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • In such cases, the prognosis is good.[dovemed.com]
  • Prognosis The outlook is good in early or mild cases, especially if the patient can avoid being infected again. The disease is rarely fatal, and with continued WHO medical intervention, even gross elephantiasis is now becoming rare.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Prognosis The prognosis in filariasis is good if infection is recognized and treated early. Filarial diseases are rarely fatal, but the consequences of infection can cause significant personal and socioeconomic hardship for those who are affected.[emedicine.com]
  • Complications and prognosis Filarial diseases are rarely fatal but those affected tend to have poor health, have more time off work and are less productive [ 8 ] .[patient.info]

Etiology

  • However, the positive impact of the lymphedema management program was also emphasized, and many family and community members indicated that community members were accepting of patients and had some improved understanding of the etiology of the disease[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] eyelid Lymphedema of genitalia Lymphedema of limb Lymphedema of limbs due to immobility, chronic dependency and/or venous insufficiency Lymphedema of lip Lymphedema of lower extremity Lymphedema of penis Lymphedema of scrotum Lymphedema of uncertain etiology[icd9data.com]
  • (See Pathophysiology and Etiology.) [13] As with most helminths, adult filarial parasites replicate in a definitive host. The adult worm burden in an individual cannot increase unless the host is exposed to additional microfilaria.[emedicine.com]
  • Treatment with nutritional optimization and management of the underlying etiology are the cornerstones of therapy.[doi.org]
  • (Etiology) Lymphatic Filariasis is caused by filarial worm species that infect a human host. The adult worms live in the lymphatic system and produce thousands of larval microfilariae.[dovemed.com]

Epidemiology

  • RESULT: Post MDA survey showed drug coverage between 81%-88% and epidemiological coverage 77%-89% across years.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Middle Aged Onchocerciasis/blood Onchocerciasis/drug therapy* Onchocerciasis/epidemiology Senegal/epidemiology Treatment Outcome Young Adult Substances Antibodies, Helminth Ivermectin[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics, antigenic profile, perceptions, attitudes and practices of individuals who have been systematically non-compliant in mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns targeting[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The justification for EICs, and related epidemiological, geospatial and other mathematical/operational research modelling, stems from the necessity for proper planning prior to committing to disease eradication.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • METHODS: A survey was carried out from 2004 to 2007 during which, an epidemiological and socioeconomic data were collected and analysed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology The filarial life cycle, like that of all nematodes, consists of 5 developmental (larval) stages in a vertebral host and an arthropod intermediate host and vector.[emedicine.com]
  • Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed using the key words ‘chylous’, ‘ascites’, ‘cirrhosis’, ‘pathophysiology’, ‘nutritional therapy’, ‘paracentesis”, “transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt” and “TIPSS’.[doi.org]
  • Supplementary material 13564_2003_14_MOESM4_ESM.mpg (3.4 mb) Additional File 4: Our understanding of the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of hydrocoele (one of the sequelae of lymphatic filariasis where fluid collects in the scrotal sac causing it to[link.springer.com]
  • Lymphoedema: Pathophysiology and management in resource-poor settings- relevance for lymphatic filariasis control programmes. Filaria Journal. 2003,2:1-10. 5. Taylor MJ, Makunde WH, McGarry HF, et al.[phlebolymphology.org]

Prevention

  • Further epidemiological data indicated that preventive chemotherapy was not required in 9 countries.[web.archive.org]
  • Large-scale treatment (preventive chemotherapy) Elimination of lymphatic filariasis is possible by stopping the spread of the infection through preventive chemotherapy.[web.archive.org]
  • DPD Home A-Z Index Lymphatic Filariasis Home Prevention Prevention The best way to prevent lymphatic filariasis is to avoid mosquito bites. The mosquitoes that carry the microscopic worms usually bite between the hours of dusk and dawn.[web.archive.org]
  • The economic savings associated with this disease prevention was then analysed in the context of prevented medical expenses incurred by LF clinical patients, potential income loss through lost-labour, and prevented costs to the health system to care for[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Methods: Our economic evaluation of preventive chemotherapy was based on previously published health and economic impact estimates (between 2000 and 2014).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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