Magnesium deficiency or hypomagnesemia is an electrolyte imbalance characterized by serum magnesium levels below 1.5-2.5 mEq/L. Magnesium is essentially important in the maintenance of the cardiovascular and the nervous system. Magnesium is normally excreted through the kidneys and any abnormalities in the kidneys that lead to the increased excretion of magnesium will consequently result in magnesium deficiency.
The following symptoms and signs are closely associated with magnesium deficiency among patients:
Hypomagnesemia on admission seemed to arise from long-lasting poor food intake and malnutrition, because it improved after the disappearance of dysphagia with a goiter resection. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dysphagia and vertical nystagmus in magnesium deficiency. Ann Intern Med 1978 ; 89: 222 – 3. Google Scholar Crossref Medline ISI 18. Iseri, LT, Fairshter, RD, Hardemann, JL, Brodsky, MA. [doi.org]
Chronic Watery Diarrhea
The gastrointestinal causes include the following: protein-calorie malnutrition, the intravenous administration of Mg-free fluids and total parenteral nutrition, chronic watery diarrhea and steatorrhea, short bowel syndrome, bowel fistula, continuous [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Liver, Gall & Pancreas
Symptoms of Magnesium Deficiency Signs & Symptoms of Magnesium Deficiency: Poor immune function Bone Loss Muscle pain and muscle twitching Depression High Blood Pressure Increase cholesterol Hypoglycemia or other blood sugar problems Fatigue Thyroid Disease [towncenterwellness.com]
Keep in mind that involuntary muscle twitches may have many other causes. For example, they may be caused by stress or too much caffeine. [healthline.com]
Signs & Symptoms of Magnesium Deficiency: Poor immune function Bone Loss Muscle pain and muscle twitching Depression High Blood Pressure Increase cholesterol Hypoglycemia or other blood sugar problems Fatigue Thyroid Disease Magnesium has been shown to [glutenfreesociety.org]
Muscle twitches and cramps Although involuntary muscle twitches may have many other causes, such as stress, these twitches and muscle cramps can be signs of magnesium deficiency. Some deficiencies may even cause seizures. [longevitylive.com]
Your muscles are sore and twitchy As most magnesium is stored in the tissue, leg cramps, foot pain, or muscle twitches can be one of the early signs of a magnesium deficiency, especially if they happen at night. 2. [cosmopolitan.co.uk]
These comorbid conditions and symptomatology include allergy, asthma, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, coprolalia, copropraxia, anxiety, depression, restless leg syndrome, migraine, self-injurious behavior [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sircus documents the National Institute of Health’s list of magnesium deficiency symptoms: Early symptoms include one or more of: irritability, anxiety (including Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Tourette syndrome), anorexia, fatigue, insomnia, and muscle [oldthinkernews.com]
Even anger, aggression, ADHD, insomnia and obsessive compulsive disorder are Signs of Magnesium Deficiency until proven otherwise. If you can’t relax or you can’t stop, then it is likely that this is a symptom of magnesium deficiency. [easy-immune-health.com]
The following diagnostic modalities and tests are available for the workup of patients suspected with magnesium deficiency:
- Electrocardiography (ECG): Low serum magnesium will result in prolonged conduction and ST wave depression on the ECG tracings.
- Magnesium blood levels: This blood test determines the actual serum concentration. The results derived from this test must be correlated with magnesium excretory results because magnesium is biologically active within the intracellular portion of the cell.
- Calcium serum levels: This blood test shows the concentration of calcium in the body because calcium concentration is directly affected by magnesium levels especially in the metabolism of vitamin D in the system.
- Potassium blood levels: The blood levels of potassium decrease with hypomagnesemia. Low serum potassium levels also incites some characteristic ECG changes.
- Phosphate levels: The diminished adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels seen in hypomagnesemia will consequently result in low serum levels of phosphates during the blood tests.
fibrosis which, in turn, would cause myocardial damage and replacement fibrosis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Inadequate dietary magnesium intake increases atherosclerotic plaque development in rabbits 113 and induces myocardial fibrosis similar to what is found in human cardiomyopathy endomyocardial fibrosis. 114 A diet deficient in magnesium in the Cebus monkey [doi.org]
In patients presenting with hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemic signs with concurrent arrhythmia, an intravenous drip of magnesium sulfate of up to 50 milliequivalents in a period of 8 to 24 hours, repeated in 3 to 5 days, can correct the symptoms of the deficiency. Oral doses of magnesium chloride and magnesium lactate may be given as maintenance doses to correct magnesium deficiency among patients.
Calcium supplementations and potassium supplementations can also be given to patients suffering from magnesium deficiency with concurrent hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia to allay the untoward effects brought about by the electrolyte imbalance . Patients suffering from renal insufficiency with high renal creatinine clearance can only be given intravenous magnesium sulfate in up to 25% to 50% of the normal dose to prevent inadvertent hypermagnesemia . Patients with mild magnesium deficiency can benefit from eating green leafy vegetables, rice grains, and legumes which are naturally rich in elemental magnesium .
Magnesium deficiency has a good prognosis in general, especially when diagnosed and treated promptly. Morbidity and mortality incidences associated with hypomagnesemia correlate closely with it comorbid events like heart failure, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), and diabetes. The mild untoward signs and symptoms seen in magnesium deficiency are easily correctable by the supplementary replacement of the element in the diet.
In the United States, people suffering from magnesium deficiency number to about 2% of the population. Studies have inferred that more than three fourths of Americans could not meet the recommended daily allowance of dietary magnesium . More than 60% of alcoholics are likely to suffer from magnesium deficiency. A fourth of the patients who are diagnosed with diabetes have a concurrent hypomagnesemia. Cohort studies have demonstrated that neonates have a higher demand for intracellular magnesium, and are more likely to suffer from magnesium deficiency than their older counterparts.
Magnesium deficiency is already recognized as a significant etiologic factor in the propagation of cardiac arrhythmias . Imbalances in magnesium concentration directly affect cardiac electrical activities, myocardial contractility, and general vascular tone. A significant drop in magnesium levels has been demonstrated to prolong conduction with a slight ST wave depression. Even patients presenting with mild hypomagnesemia can result in dire consequences especially among cardiac patients with established congestive heart failure and myocardial ischemia . A progressive decrease in intracellular magnesium can increase vascular tone and resistance causing hypertension in most patients.
Magnesium has been found to stabilize the threshold potential of axons in neuromuscular systems. Any significant decrease in magnesium brings the neural cells into a hyperexcitable state causing tetany, hyperreflexia, muscle crampings, and seizures. The decreasing intracellular magnesium concentration diminishes the estrogen release thereby, worsens the osteoporotic process among post-menopausal women . One of the main function of magnesium is to increase the cell’s sensitivity to insulin, thus, hypomagnesemia is usually a comorbid event among diabetics.
High risk patients should have a healthy balance of diet rich in magnesium like sunflower seeds, almonds, cashew, soy products, avocados, and brown rice to prevent magnesium deficiency. High risk patients, especially diabetic, should control alcohol intake to prevent progressive loss of magnesium. Patients on magnesium wasting diuretics suffering from hypomagnesemia should have their maintenance medications revised to prevent further magnesium loss in the urine.
Magnesium deficiency is also defined as serum magnesium falling below 0.70 mmol/L caused by inadequate magnesium intake or impaired renal excretion of the element. Magnesium deficiency states often coexists with hypokalemia and hypocalcemia presenting as lethargy, arrhythmias, seizures, tetany, and tremors. Magnesium deficiency is easily corrected with magnesium replacement.
Definition: Magnesium deficiency or hypomagnesemia is an electrolyte imbalance characterized by magnesium levels below 1.5-2.5 mEq/L causing significant effects in the neuromuscular system and the cardiovascular system of affected patients.
Cause: Magnesium deficiency can be caused by low dietary intake of magnesium and kidney problems that lead to excessive magnesium wastage. Patients with irritable bowel diseases, patients with nephrotoxic drugs, and pregnant women can also be prone to magnesium deficiency.
Diagnosis: The diagnostic workup for patients with magnesium deficiency includes magnesium serum and excretory levels, blood tests for phosphate, calcium, and potassium levels, and ECG.
Treatment and follow-up: Intravenous replacement with magnesium sulfate for symptomatic patients with hypocalcemia, oral magnesium chloride and magnesium lactate for milder cases, and dietary supplementations of exogenous magnesium are the main treatment options.
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