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Malignant Cervical Neoplasm

Cervical Cancer


Presentation

  • (The word “lesion” refers to an area of abnormal tissue; “intraepithelial” means that the abnormal cells are present only in the surface layer of the cervix.)[cervix.cz]
  • Stage I: There is a small amount of tumor present that has not spread to any lymph nodes, organs, or distant areas of the body.[medicinenet.com]
  • Conclusion: The present study data can be used for estimation of load of the benign and malignant tumours of uterine cervix.[ijmhs.net]
  • Tumors of the lacrimal gland may present as proptosis and changes in vision. ACC arising in the tracheobronchial tree may present with respiratory symptoms, while tumors arising in the larynx may lead to changes in speech.[oralcancerfoundation.org]
  • Diagnosis Human papillomavirus ( HPV ) infection must be present for cervical cancer to occur. Complete evaluation starts with Papanicolaou (Pap) testing.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Fishing
  • In this study, cervico-vaginal specimens were analyzed by FISH for gain of chromosome 3q26 containing hTERC, and FISH findings were compared with the cytologic and histologic diagnoses.[aetna.com]
Leg Swelling
  • Your doctor will ask if you have any of the following signs or symptoms, which may mean the cancer has come back: Pain in the abdomen, back, or leg. Swelling in the leg. Trouble urinating. Cough. Feeling tired.[cancer.gov]
Fear
  • However, many women do not undergo cervical cancer screening for the following reasons: fear, shame, physical limitations, cultural or religious considerations and lack of access to health care services.[aetna.com]
Vaginal Discharge
  • Signs and symptoms of more-advanced cervical cancer include: Vaginal bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after menopause Watery, bloody vaginal discharge that may be heavy and have a foul odor Pelvic pain or pain during intercourse When to[mayoclinic.org]
  • As the cancer progresses, the most common signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include: Abnormal vaginal bleeding Increased vaginal discharge Bleeding after going through menopause Pain during sex Pelvic pain Cervical cancer causes and risk factors include[medicinenet.com]
  • Treatment for precancerous lesions may cause cramping or other pain, bleeding, or a watery vaginal discharge.[webmd.com]
  • Unusual vaginal discharge. Pelvic pain. Pain during sexual intercourse. Tests that examine the cervix are used to detect (find) and diagnose cervical cancer.[cancer.gov]
  • Fallopian tube cancer : Fallopian tube cancer is very rare in the female reproductive cancer and the mean age of onset is 55 years old, and symptom of the fallopian tube cancer is mainly vaginal discharge. [13] MRI reveals that a sausage-shaped, solid[journals.lww.com]
Kidney Failure
  • Complications associated with cervical cancer can range from the relatively minor, like some bleeding from the vagina or having to pee frequently, to life-threatening, such as severe bleeding or kidney failure.[nhs.uk]
  • They may include: Pain, when the cancer is advanced Abnormal vaginal bleeding (other than during menstruation ) Abnormal vaginal discharge Pelvic pain Kidney failure due to a urinary tract or bowel obstruction, when the cancer is advanced When to Seek[webmd.com]
Dysuria
  • Physical symptoms of cervical cancer may include the following: Abnormal vaginal bleeding Vaginal discomfort Malodorous discharge Dysuria See Clinical Presentation for more detail.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Workup

  • Recognition of the etiologic role of human papillomavirus ( HPV ) infection in cervical cancer has led to the recommendation of adding HPV testing to the screening regimen in women 30-65 years of age (see Workup).[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • The patient may come to the otolaryngologist with a new-onset neck mass and no previous evaluation or may have had extensive evaluation including systemic workup and imaging studies.[jamanetwork.com]
  • Workup of a patient with a mass in the neck. Adv Surg. 1995;28:371–83. 6. Johnson IJ, Smith I, Akintunde MO, Robson AK, Stafford FW. Assessment of preoperative investigations of thyroglossal cysts. J R Coll Surg Edinb. 1996;41:48–9. 7.[aafp.org]
Chlamydia
  • Having other STIs — such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis and HIV/AIDS — increases your risk of HPV. A weak immune system.[mayoclinic.org]
  • Certain risk factors have been identified that increase a woman's risk for developing cervical cancer: Tobacco smoking HIV infection Immune system suppression Past or current Chlamydia infection Overweight Long-term use of oral contraceptives (although[medicinenet.com]
  • If you are sexually active and have a higher risk for STDs, get tests for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis yearly. Take an HIV test at least once, more frequently if you’re at risk.[webmd.com]

Treatment

  • Treatment Options by Stage For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.[cancer.gov]
  • Treatment The stage of your cancer helps your doctor to decide which treatment you need.[cancerresearchuk.org]
  • Continued Medical Treatment for Cervical Cancer Treatment for precancerous lesions differs from that of invasive cervical cancer.[webmd.com]
  • Radiation therapy is another common treatment.[medicinenet.com]
  • In advanced cancer, palliative treatment may help someone to live longer and to live comfortably, even if they cannot be cured. Palliative treatment can also mean using medicines to reduce or control the side effects of cancer treatments.[cervix.cz]

Prognosis

  • Conley J, Hamaker RC: Prognosis of malignant tumors of the parotid gland with facial paralysis. Arch Otolaryngol 1975;101:39–41.[karger.com]
  • What is the prognosis for cervical cancer? Can it be cured? What are the survival rates? As with most cancers, the prognosis is better for cancers that are detected in early stages than for advanced cancers.[medicinenet.com]
  • Types of cervical cancer The type of cervical cancer that you have helps determine your prognosis and treatment. The main types of cervical cancer are: Squamous cell carcinoma.[mayoclinic.org]
  • Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.[cancer.gov]
  • By finding out how far it has spread, your health care providers can make a reasonable guess about your prognosis and the kind of treatment you will need.[webmd.com]

Etiology

  • Because of its etiological diversity, there is an age range of onset that can reach from the pediatric to the elderly patient.[scielo.br]
  • Etiology/Epidemiology A wide age range has been reported for adenoid cystic carcinoma, including cases in the pediatric age group. Most individuals are diagnosed with the disease in the fourth through sixth decades of life.[oralcancerfoundation.org]
  • Recognition of the etiologic role of human papillomavirus ( HPV ) infection in cervical cancer has led to the recommendation of adding HPV testing to the screening regimen in women 30-65 years of age (see Workup).[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • It typically presents in the head and neck as cervical adenopathy of unknown etiology. Multiple biopsies showing florid lymphoid hyperplasia are frequently required to establish the diagnosis.[aafp.org]
  • The etiology and pathogenesis of synchronous cancers remain unclear. When similar tissues of the female genital tract are subjected to carcinogen exposure during fetal/embryological development, synchronous tumors may develop ( 5 ).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • The change in the epidemiologic trend in the United States has been attributed to mass screening with Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, which permits detection and treatment of preinvasive disease.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 19 (2): 511–6. doi : 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0790. PMID 20086109. Liu Y, Lu Z, Xu R, Ke Y (February 2016).[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Etiology/Epidemiology A wide age range has been reported for adenoid cystic carcinoma, including cases in the pediatric age group. Most individuals are diagnosed with the disease in the fourth through sixth decades of life.[oralcancerfoundation.org]
  • Epidemiologic classification of human papillomavirus types associated with cervical cancer. N Engl J Med 2003; 348:518-27.[ijp.iranpath.org]
  • Our paper discussed its epidemiology, clinical symptoms, pathologic characters, therapeutic method as well as magnetic resonance imaging findings suggesting the diagnosis and differential diagnosis, including precontrast scan, contrast scan and diffusion[journals.lww.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Porth pathophysiology: concepts of altered health states (1st Canadian ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 660. ISBN 978-1-60547-781-7. Robbins S, Kumar V, Abbas A, Fausto N (2007).[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Pathophysiology Human papillomavirus ( HPV ) infection must be present for cervical cancer to occur. HPV infection occurs in a high percentage of sexually active women.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • When exposed to HPV, a woman's immune system typically prevents the virus from doing harm.[mayoclinic.org]
  • Is there a vaccine to prevent cervical cancer? Yes, cervical cancer often can be prevented with vaccination and modern screening techniques that detect precancerous changes in the cervix.[medicinenet.com]
  • Continued Avoidance of HPV infection is important in the prevention of precancerous and cancerous changes of the cervix. Prevention measures include: Abstinence from sex is recommended as one way to prevent the transmission of HPV.[webmd.com]
  • Using condoms during sex offers some protection against HPV, but it cannot always prevent infection because the virus is also spread through skin-to-skin contact of the wider genital area.[nhs.uk]

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