Malignant choroidal melanoma (MCM) is a rare diagnosis, although it is the most commonly reported intraocular malignancy. Furthermore, the choroid is the second most common site that melanomas occur.
Malignant choroidal melanoma (MCM) is a rare, sporadic cancer of the eye that arises from the choroid . It is even more unusual in children . It is found mostly in individuals of European descent and has male predominance . Those with blue or green iris seem to be more frequently affected. MCM is usually diagnosed in middle age, on average within the fifth decade of life .
MCM typically has a delayed onset of symptoms, more so if the tumor is anteriorly located. As a result, it is often discovered incidentally.
When signs do arise, they consist of visual disturbances such as floaters, decreased visual acuity, photopsia, scotoma, and visual field defects. Photoreceptors receive their blood supply from the blood vessels in the choroid. Due to the growth of MCM, there is disruption of the vasculature, leading to reduced perfusion and thus ischemia of the retinal cells . A further cause of visual loss is the retinal detachment. Moreover, other possible ocular findings include the abnormal formation of blood vessels in the iris (rubeosis), inflammation, and in a minority of cases, ocular pain. The latter is likely due to nerve impingement, tissue necrosis or glaucoma (increased intraocular pressure), caused by the melanoma.
Liver, Gall & Pancreas
Fast and slow EOG oscillations in congenital and acquired night blindness. Ophthalmic Res 1979; 11: 206–11. Google Scholar 11. Aschoff U. Skotopische und photopische Anteile des Hellanstiegs im Elektrookulogramm (EOG). [link.springer.com]
There were also diffuse corneal edema and iridocorneal adhesion. Anterior chamber was flat and the tumoral mass was evident in papillary space which filled the whole eye. No other fundus details could be detected. [ijo.in]
Malignant choroidal melanomas are diagnosed via ophthalmologic examination. The medical history normally does not contain information that would suggest MCM. Despite this, diagnostic accuracy with regards to MCM has improved  . It may be of some importance to note a history of any other malignancies, as these could be signs of metastatic disease or primary tumors that are sometimes associated with MCM .
The method used to visualize the intraocular structures and diagnose MCM is indirect ophthalmoscopy (IO). IO may reveal a flat or raised, typically pigmented lesion, which can be multilobular, dome, button or mushroom-shaped . The lesion often has margins that are well demarcated. It may be associated with retinal detachment, prominent episcleral blood vessels, and orange pigmentation. It is possible to have diffuse MCMs, which pose a diagnostic challenge as they are minimally elevated, and are more likely to cause retinal detachment . Other features that may accompany MCM are vitreous hemorrhage and pigmented cells in the vitreous humor, as well as abnormalities that appear within the retina and choroid, namely drusen and choroidal neovascular membranes respectively. Large tumors may extend into the orbit, causing proptosis.
Imaging techniques have a major role in the diagnosis and evaluation of the extent of the tumor. These modalities include:
- Ultrasound: Both A and B scans are used. A scan ultrasound may show a blood vessel formation within the melanoma .
- Fundus fluorescein angiography.
- Fine needle aspiration cytology: This is only performed if other diagnostic measures have failed, or as a therapeutic procedure, as it is invasive and potentially harmful.
Imaging and laboratory tests that are carried out to detect the presence of metastasis include:
- Abdominal computerized tomography (CT).
- Chest X-ray.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen.
- Liver function tests.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) as the only method of treatment for small choroidal melanoma. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Several modes of treatment are available for choroidal melanomas. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Treatments Small Choroidal Melanoma After a complete evaluation, treatment may be recommended. [westcoastretina.com]
Computer analysis of a series of risk factors and their effect on prognosis showed that there was no worsening of mortality as compared to the series as a whole and further that the post enucleation peak of mortality was the same in this small group as [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
We have found that patients with disomy of chromosome 3 (less aggressive cell type) have a better life prognosis and those with monosomy of chromosome 3 (more aggressive cell type) have a more guarded prognosis and may require additional chemotherapy. [willseye.org]
Prognosis Average patient survival: 8-9 months after ocular diagnosis Primary tumor type determines prognosis Metastatic malignant melanoma: worst prognosis 1-2 months Metastatic breast carcinoma: prognosis of 12 months 22. [slideshare.net]
Spindle cell melanomas have the best prognosis, epithelioid cell melanomas have the least favorable prognosis, and mixed-cell melanomas have an intermediate prognosis (9). Tumors made entirely of spindle A cells are nevi. [webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu]
Sections and Some Topics Include: • Basic Principles o Cancer etiology; cancer genetics, principles of laser therapy, and more • Eyelid Tumors o Benign epidermal tumors; melanoma of the eyelid, systemic associations, and more • Conjunctival and Corneal [books.google.de]
True iris melanomas, originating from within the iris as opposed to originating elsewhere and invading the iris, are distinct in their etiology and prognosis, such that the other tumors are often referred to collectively as Posterior uveal melanomas. [en.wikipedia.org]
Epidemiology For American women lifetime risk breast cancer- one in eight (12.5%) & lifetime risk death from breast cancer is 3.4% Breast Cancer is the most common malignancy to metastasize to the uvea Mean age at ocular diagnosis is 58 years, most cases [slideshare.net]
Epidemiologic aspects of uveal melanoma. Surv Ophthalmol 1988;32:239-51. 2. Bell DJ, Wilson MW. Choroidal melanoma: Natural history and management options. Cancer Control 2004;11:296-303. 3. Mittica N, Vemuganti GK, Duffy M, Torczynski E, Edward DP. [ijo.in]
The most common site of metastasis is the liver (95%). [ 2, 3 ] Less frequently, choroidal melanoma can metastasise locally into the orbit, the conjunctiva or the maxillofacial bones. [ 4 ] Epidemiology 98% of cases occur in Caucasians. [ 1 ] It is rarely [patient.info]
*SEER Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results [cancer.org]
Diagnosis: Choroidal melanoma Epidemiology Malignant neoplasm arising from melanocytes in the uveal tract, accounting for 3% of all melanomas Most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults Overall incidence in U.S. is 4.3 per million/year (1) Average [webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu]
Comprehensively updated to reflect everything you need to know regarding retinal diagnosis, treatment, development, structure, function, and pathophysiology, this monumental ophthalmology reference work equips you with expert answers to virtually any [books.google.de]
[…] however, this lesion is the wrong color) Choroidal metastasis (however, generally amelanotic unless from melanoma) Additional Investigations CT chest, abdomen, pelvis done for evaluation of metastatic disease and staging was negative Choroidal melanoma Pathophysiology [eyewiki.org]
[…] produce similar results to proton-beam radiotherapy. 28 Radiation-induced Complications After radiotherapy, many patients experience visual loss, with some also developing a painful eye requiring enucleation. 29-31 It is important to understand the pathophysiology [retinalphysician.com]
In these patients, the main benefits of ocular treatment are conservation of the eye and vision, if possible, and the prevention of pain and cosmetic loss. [retinalphysician.com]
Prevention Because the causes of choroidal melanoma are not well understood, there is no known way to prevent it. Treatment Management and treatment of choroidal melanoma depends on the tumor's size. [drugs.com]
Limiting excessive ocular sunlight exposure through sunglasses or other means may have a theoretical preventive effect in patients with a predisposition to intraocular melanoma. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Treatment Once a tumor is diagnosed as melanoma, treatment is needed to prevent further growth of the tumor, or spread of the tumor from the eye to other sites. [ohsu.edu]
Survival Rates Brain Mets Not treated with Whole Brain Radiation Treatment (WBRT) or treated with corticosteroids alone: 1-2 months Median survival is increased to 3-6 months with WBRT & corticosteroids WBRT prevents any further deterioration of neurologic [slideshare.net]
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- Shields CL, Kaliki S, Furuta M, Shields JA. Diffuse versus nondiffuse small (≤ 3 MM thickness) choroidal melanoma: comparative analysis in 1,751 cases. The 2012 F. Phinizy Calhoun lecture. Retina. 2013;33(9):1763-1776.