Mania is derived from the Greek word for madness and frenzy. It is defined as a period of persistently and abnormally elevated, irritable or expansive mood lasting for at least one week or that requiring hospitalization.
Some manic episodes develop with amazing swiftness, although onset may be gradual, lasting for months. Individuals being treated for depression may evolve quickly into mania and mania may sharply switch back to depression. The DSM requires euphoria and/or irritability to be present for there to be a diagnosis of mania. During an episode of mood disturbance, there are some listed symptoms and signs and three of them must be present to a significant degree to make a diagnosis .
- There is a decreased need for sleep. In mania, unlike other disorders, there is no resultant fatigue and patients feel well rested after 3 hours sleep.
- There is also increased activity as patients with mania are almost always up and about at night. This has to be apparent to others apart from the patient for it to be considered a symptom.
- There will also be racing thoughts which can be elicited during the history taking. Flight of ideas is seen commonly.
- Patients also have a short attention span and lack the ability to concentrate for a period of time. This may be attributed to the racing thoughts.
- Pressured speech is also present and patients speak rapidly and expressively.
- Delusions of grandeur may range from modest overestimation of talents to grandiose delusions where the individual has global or supernatural importance. They are often complicated by persecutory delusions.
- There is extreme involvement in pleasurable but reckless behavior. The patients, due to grandiose delusions have a false sense of invulnerability and optimism that causes this behavior. This is responsible for much of the morbidity associated with mania.
Entire Body System
- Pressured Speech
She presented with a predominantly expansive mood, psychomotor agitation, disorganized and pressured speech, flight of ideas, grandiosity, delusions, and auditory hallucinations. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
speech, they are speaking rapidly their thoughts and their words are crashing into one another and coming so quickly and they tend to jump from idea to idea with no real organization so individuals with extreme a manic episode will have this pressured [youtube.com]
Symptoms: These includes excitement, irritability, reduced sleep time, increased activity, short attention span, elevated self-esteem, pressured speech and reckless behavior. [symptoma.com]
[…] which is difficult to interrupt (pressured speech) Rapid thinking Increased sense of perceptual and intellectual acuity Increased impulsivity Not infrequently paranoia and delusions of grandeur or persecution are present, less frequently auditory, visual [hopkinsguides.com]
- Weight Loss
Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is widely recognised as a safe dietary supplement to aid weight loss. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] crying Difficulty making decisions Irritability Increased need for sleep Insomnia or excessive sleep A change in appetite causing weight loss or gain Thoughts of death or suicide Attempting suicide Patients with depression can also become psychotic and [my.clevelandclinic.org]
The clinical depression symptoms seen with bipolar disorder are the same as those seen in major depressive disorder and include: Decreased appetite and/or weight loss, or overeating and weight gain Difficulty concentrating, remembering, and making decisions [webmd.com]
[…] of appetite, weight loss, poor concentration, aggression, excessive sociability, getting dominating and demanding, detachment from reality, feeling on top of the world — until it all comes crashing down. [thehindu.com]
There was no history of weight loss, fever, cough, diabetes and hypertension. There was a history of treatment for primary pulmonary tuberculosis 5 years previously. [smjonline.org]
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Portland’s traditional fishing, shipping, and commercial activities were increasingly supplemented by manufacturing industries. Naval shipbuilding was important in World Wars I and II. [britannica.com]
After choking down the meal, I take my first of two daily medications for bipolar disorder along with half my daily dose of fish oil. I wash it all down with water and decaf coffee. [healthline.com]
- Episodic Course
For patients with classic mania, which refers to the presence of euphoria, grandiosity and hyperactivity in a person with a stable episodic course, many experts prefer lithium as a first-line medication. [camh.ca]
J Clin Psychiatry 2007 ; 68:207–212 Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar 128 Judd LL, Akiskal HS, Schettler PJ, Coryell W, Maser J, Rice JA, Solomon DA, Keller MB : The comparative clinical phenotype and long term longitudinal episode course of bipolar I [ajp.psychiatryonline.org]
Included are such symptoms as persecutory delusions (not directly related to grandiose ideas or themes), thought insertion, and delusions of being controlled. .x5--In Partial Remission: Symptoms of a Manic Episode are present but full criteria are not [web.archive.org]
What kinds of delusions are common during a manic episode? An individual in the throes of a manic episode may suffer from delusions or hallucinations. [psychologytoday.com]
Delusions of grandeur may range from modest overestimation of talents to grandiose delusions where the individual has global or supernatural importance. They are often complicated by persecutory delusions. [symptoma.com]
Overview Schizoaffective disorder is a mental disorder in which a person experiences a combination of schizophrenia symptoms, such as hallucinations or delusions, and mood disorder symptoms, such as depression or mania. [mayoclinic.com]
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CONCLUSIONS: The finding of decreased mPFC activation during self-referential processing in mania may reflect decreased self-focus and high distractibility. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Most frequently observed are patients with predominantly depressed mood and poverty of thought who simultaneously manifest restlessness and dysphoric energy, or patients with depressed mood who also exhibit flight of ideas, distractibility, anxiety and [hopkinsguides.com]
Symptoms of hypomania can include the following: How you might feel Happy, euphoric or a sense of wellbeing Very excited, like you can't get your words out fast enough Irritable and agitated Increased sexual energy Easily distracted, like your thoughts [mind.org.uk]
- Flight of Ideas
She presented with a predominantly expansive mood, psychomotor agitation, disorganized and pressured speech, flight of ideas, grandiosity, delusions, and auditory hallucinations. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
The patient demonstrates flight of ideas, pressure of speech, disinhibition, punning, grandiose delusions, and second person auditory hallucinations. His presentation is consistent with mania. [youtube.com]
When flight of ideas is severe, speech may become disorganized and incoherent. A person in a manic episode may easily lose attention. [psychcentral.com]
Mania Definition Mania is an abnormally elated mental state, typically characterized by feelings of euphoria, lack of inhibitions, racing thoughts, diminished need for sleep, talkativeness, risk taking, and irritability. [medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
These beliefs are frequently accompanied by feelings of euphoria and intense pleasure. Nothing seems impossible and every problem has a solution. The person may feel an urgent need to initiate projects or activities. [web.archive.org]
[…] noun mass noun 1 Mental illness marked by periods of great excitement or euphoria, delusions, and overactivity. [en.oxforddictionaries.com]
And if you're like some people with bipolar disorder, you may enjoy the feelings of euphoria and cycles of being more productive. [mayoclinic.org]
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- Mood Swings
Clinical Information Manic episode of the major affective disorder bipolar depression; tendency to remission and recurrence and to swing to the major depressive episode 296.4 Excludes brief compensatory or rebound mood swings ( 296.99 ) Applies To Bipolar [icd9data.com]
After you know your early warning signs, check your mood daily to see whether you may be heading for a mood swing. Write down your symptoms in a journal. Or record them on a chart or a calendar. [uofmhealth.org]
Depressive mood swings typically occur more often and… [britannica.com]
The most prominent signs of bipolar disorder in children and teenagers may include severe mood swings that are different from their usual mood swings. [mayoclinic.org]
Published: March, 2019 Bipolar disorder, which used to be called manic depressive illness or manic depression, is a mental disorder characterized by wide mood swings from high (manic) to low (depressed). [health.harvard.edu]
KEYWORDS: Adolescence; bipolar disorder; cardinal symptoms; childhood; irritability; mania [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
These factors represent 'elated mania', 'irritable mania' and 'psychotic mania'. The first factor represented irritable mania with high loadings from irritability, and increased motor activity/energy. [bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com]
The DSM requires euphoria and/or irritability to be present for there to be a diagnosis of mania. [symptoma.com]
A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood, lasting at least 1 week (or any duration if hospitalization is necessary). B. [web.archive.org]
A person in a manic state is full of energy or very irritable, may sleep far less than normal, and may dream up grand plans that could never be carried out. [health.harvard.edu]
FootballMania is an exciting sweepstakes fundraiser based on professional football. [charitymania.com]
If a person becomes manic, they may notice that they are: Very happy and excited Irritated with other people who don't share their optimistic outlook Feeling more important than usual Full of new and exciting ideas Moving quickly from one idea to another [awp.nhs.uk]
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[…] mn 1. frenzy चर संज्ञा Frenzy is great excitement or wild behaviour that often results from losing control of your feelings. 'Get out!' [collinsdictionary.com]
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Manic-depressives and agitated depressives were also excluded. Patients with mania and/or psychomotor agitation had predominantly right hemisphere lesions. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
They may also display inappropriate anger, or agitation, and even lash out and become violent in some cases. For example, a person with mania in a bar might pick a fight for no reason. [gulfbend.org]
Our results are in agreement with the hypothesis that hyperactive/novelty-seeking features may represent an adaptive substrate in certain conditions of social change. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
It is characterized by persistent or elevated expansive mood, hyperactivity, inflated self esteem, etc., but of less intensity than mania.) Severe mania may have psychotic features. [medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
The first is rapid control of hyperactivity, sleeplessness, irritability and psychotic features. The second is selection of mood stabilizers. Many patients initially refuse oral medication so parenteral antipsychotics should be used. [symptoma.com]
H2 receptor antagonists can be associated with central adverse drug reactions (ADRs), like confusion, delirium, hallucinations, slurred speech or headaches. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] of secondary mania are narrowed to those without the confused state. The second argument is harder to dispute, as it is possible that secondary mania is late-onset bipolar disorder. [en.wikipedia.org]
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Call us and speak with a live, knowledgeable person…no automated response or confusing phone menus. Learn more about us. We are a proud member of the Better Business Bureau’s Online Reliability Program. [charitymania.com]
- Sexual Dysfunction
dysfunction Dry mouth Constipation Blurred vision Dealing with antipsychotic-induced erectile dysfunction Sexual and erectile dysfunction is a common side effect of antipsychotic medications, one that often deters bipolar disorder patients from continuing [web.archive.org]
Patient should be screened for alcohol and substance abuse. Laboratory investigations like liver and renal function are also important to establish a baseline. MRI could also be done. Although its role remains unclear, some have reported that there is hyperintensity in the temporal lobes of patients with mania .
ECG is also required to establish a baseline as some drugs used in management have cardiovascular effects. EEG should also be done for baseline assessment before interventions like electroconvulsive therapy.
There are two goals of treatment. The first is rapid control of hyperactivity, sleeplessness, irritability and psychotic features. The second is selection of mood stabilizers.
Many patients initially refuse oral medication so parenteral antipsychotics should be used. Intramuscular zisparodone can be used. Haloperidol, the most popular of the atypical psychotics can also be used. When typical psychotics are used, their increased risk of extrapyramidal symptoms should be considered and a low dose anticholinergic agent should be given along with it to reduce this risk.
Patients on rapidly increasing doses of high potency neuroleptics should be closely monitored as there is an increased risk of neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
When patients can tolerate orally, atypical antipsychotics are preferable because their acute side effects are less problematic. Although no one drug has a clear benefit over another, rapidly dissolving form of olanzapine may be preferable to increase compliance and reducing the incidence of ‘cheeking’ of drugs .
The preferred and most popular mood stabilizer is lithium. Several trials have shown its prophylactic efficacy. Mood stabilizers should be introduced as soon as patient is willing to accept oral medication. Valproate is another mood stabilizer that has proven efficacy .
Single manic episodes usually resolve over time with or without treatment, but these single occurrences are rare. It is also rare for individuals to experience only manic episodes as many manic patients usually experience depressive phases. Most bipolar patients have more morbidity from depression than from mania .
There is no evidence to show a variation in course or outcome relative to age or sex. Mania developed in childhood is indicative of more long term morbidity than that developed later in life. Patients who experience discrete episodes of mania or depression have shorter, less frequent episodes than those who switch directly from one pole to the other .
Lastly, the presence of psychotic features portend a more long-term morbidity.
The exact cause or biochemical pathway by which mania occurs is unknown. It is a psychiatric disease but a lot of factors have been implicated in its etiology. These factors could be genetic as there is an increased risk in individuals who have first degree relatives with the condition. It could also be biochemical caused by therapeutic and recreational drugs. Other factors could be neurophysiologic, psychodynamic and environmental .
A manic episode differentiates bipolar 1 disorder which is said to have a lifetime prevalence of 1.6% in the US. Unlike many other mood disorders that affects more women than men, this condition affects male and female individuals equally. First age of onset is usually in the 20s. First occurrence of a manic episode in an older individual should be properly screened for underlying diseases .
The pathophysiology behind mania is still unclear. The mechanism of action of antimanic agents and the behavior of patients experiencing a manic episode has been used to arrive at some postulates. One of the theorems is overactivity of dopamine D2 receptors. There is also overactivity of Glycogen synthase kinase 3 as well as Protein kinase C and Inositol monophosphate. There is also increased arachnoid acid turnover and increased cytokine synthesis. Imaging studies have shown that the left amygdala is more active in women who have mania than the orbitofrontal cortex .
There is no known way to prevent the primary episode but prevention of secondary manic episodes requires absolute drug compliance.
It is a symptom for many different psychiatric and organic disorders, mania is often a manifestation of an underlying disease or condition. It is usually a part of the more expansive bipolar affective disorder where it alternates with depression. Mania is often analyzed collectively, whether as a single entity or part of an entity, like one end of the bipolar spectrum .
Definition: Mania is defined as a period of persistently and abnormally elevated, irritable or expansive mood lasting at least one week or requiring hospitalization.It hardly occurs alone and is most times followed by depression in what is known as manic depressive episodes.
Causes: There are several factors that could contribute to this condition. It could be familial as there is an increased risk if first relatives suffer from it. It could also be cause by drugs, either legal or illegal drugs. Environmental factors as well as psychological and brain lesions could cause it.
Symptoms: These includes excitement, irritability, reduced sleep time, increased activity, short attention span, elevated self-esteem, pressured speech and reckless behavior.
Diagnosis: This is done clinically and is based on the history and physical examination. Patients must fit a diagnostic criteria to be said to have mania.
Treatment: This involves the use of medications, first to control the hyperactivity, irritability and sleeplessness and then to stabilize the patient’s mood. It is important that these drugs are taken religiously to avoid a relapse.
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- Bowden CL, Brugger AM, Swann AC, et al. Efficacy of divalproex vs lithium and placebo in the treatment of mania. The Depakote Mania Study Group. JAMA 1994; 271:918.