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Marcus-Gunn Syndrome

Marcus-Gunn Phenomenon


  • We report a young male patient presenting with congenital ptosis and inverse Marcus-Gunn phenomenon.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • II, Otávio Augusto Vilhena Atallah II ABSTRACT The authors present a case of Marcus Gunn Syndrome, whose major feature is the synkinetic movement between mastication muscles and the upper eyelid, present in five per cent of the cases of congenital blepharoptosis[rbcp.org.br]
  • We present two cases, one acquired after the surgery of tuberculosus cervical adenitis and other congenital with reference to the presentation, course and treatment.[dialnet.unirioja.es]
  • March 10, 2015 ; 84 (10) Video Neuro Images Deepa Kannaditharayil , Howard Geyer , Henry Hasson , Steven Herskovitz First published March 9, 2015, DOI: A 10-year-old boy presented with alternating elevation of his eyelids upon chewing, present since birth[neurology.org]


  • Treatment is usually unnecessary. In severe cases, surgery with a bilateral levator excision and frontalis brow suspension may be used.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Treatment is only necessary if there is an eye or vision problem, although some people choose to have the condition corrected for cosmetic reasons. Treatment for Marcus Gunn syndrome usually corrects the condition with no long-term problems.[kidshealth.org]
  • Tactics of treatment depends on the severity of ptosis. With minimal manifestations surgery is not indicated.[medicalformat.com]
  • The assisting physician, or specialist, guides the treatment, mainly in relation to the indication or occasion for correcting major lesions.[rbcp.org.br]


  • This is referred to by some as "habitual" ptosis. [19] Prognosis Satisfactory results are usually achieved by a medical and surgical approach to managing Marcus Gunn jaw-winking ptosis.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Complications Complications following ptosis surgery include: Undercorrection [6] Overcorrection Lagophthalmos Suture Granuloma Sling Slippage Sling Extrusion Asymetric Lid Crease Exposure Keratitis Amblyopia occurs in 30-60% cases Prognosis Prognosis[eyewiki.aao.org]


  • A similar but etiologically different acquired condition seen commonly in adults, Marin Amat syndrome, is also discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In 183 short chapters, the book provides the essentials clinicians need on symptoms/signs, diagnostic tests, and neurologic disorders of all etiologies. For this edition, Timothy A.[books.google.com]
  • These findings may help further our understanding of the etiology behind MGJWS. No Reference information available - sign in for access. No Citation information available - sign in for access. No Supplementary Data. No Article Media No Metrics[ingentaconnect.com]
  • These findings may help further our understanding of the etiology behind MGJWS.[journals.lww.com]
  • The combination of cfeom1 with MG supports a primary neurogenic etiology of CFEOM resulting from kif21a mutations.[doi.org]


  • One study found variable degrees of fibrosis within the affected levator muscle and to a lesser degree in the muscle of the normal, nonptotic eyelid. [15, 16] Epidemiology Frequency United States Approximately 50% of blepharoptosis cases are congenital[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Epidemiology There is no race or gender predilection.[patient.info]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • Jaw-winking ptosis is almost always sporadic, but familial cases with an irregular autosomal dominant inheritance pattern have been reported. [8] Pathophysiology Marcus Gunn jaw-winking is thought to be a form of synkinetic ptosis.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Some studies have found variable degrees of fibrosis within the affected levator muscle. [3] Pathophysiology Electromyographic studies demonstrate this synkinetic innervation by showing simultaneous contraction of the external pterygoid and levator palpebrae[eyewiki.aao.org]
  • The possible influence of certain genetic factors will help us understand more precisely the pathophysiological processes in microvascular structures for those with established hypertension and cardiovascular disease.[mafiadoc.com]


  • It is postulated that an atypical oculocardiac reflex is easily initiated in these patients so that precautions must be taken for its prevention and early detection. Marcus Gunn first described the syndrome in 1883.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Sporadic cases of Marcus Gunn Phenomenon are not preventable. However, if the disorder is genetically inherited, then the following factors may be considered.[dovemed.com]
  • Although this can be purely a cosmetic problem, it can also prevent normal visual development, so surgery to correct the lid position is sometimes necessary.[moorfields.nhs.uk]
  • In severe cases of thyroid eye disease with exophthalmos, lubricants may be required to prevent or treat exposure keratitis. [ 10 ] Complications Congenital ptosis Complications may include amblyopia, strabismus and abnormal posture of the head (the chin-up[patient.info]

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