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Mediastinal Neoplasm

Mediastinal Neoplasms


Presentation

  • Major changes have recently occurred in the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of primary lesions of the mediastinum.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Cancer to Bone 1655 Cancer in the Immunosuppressed Patient 1680 Cancer in the Older Population 1708 Chemotherapy in Patients with Organ Dysfunction 1721 Management of the Pregnant Cancer Patient 1738 Cancer Survivorship 1752 Survivorship Research Past Present[books.google.com]
  • It presents with unique clinical, morphologic and immunophenotypic characteristics that define the disease.[doi.org]
  • Ascites and pleural effusion, even if malignant cells are present, do not constitute metastatic disease unless they are remote from the primary tumor.[radiologykey.com]
  • They’ll remove a sample of tissue and have it analyzed to see if cancer is present. This procedure will help your doctor accurately diagnose the type of tumor you have.[healthline.com]
Soft Tissue Mass
  • CT showed a hypervascular soft-tissue mass with shell-like calcification in the right upper mediastinum. MR imaging showed a collapse of the T1 vertebral body and a mass extending to the mediastinum.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Mediastinal Disease
  • Mediastinal diseases are conditions that arise from tissues in this cavity.[utswmed.org]
  • In 1888, Hare 1 collected 520 cases of mediastinal disease, over 50 per cent of which were due to tumors, mostly of the malignant type.[jamanetwork.com]
  • Lymphadenopathy mediastinal - disease in the lymph nodes. Pericardial cysts which include growths that start in the lining of the heart. Tracheal tumors. Posterior mediastinal tumors include: Lymphadenopathy mediastinal - disease of the lymph nodes.[cedars-sinai.edu]
  • Although the true anatomic posterior boundary is the vertebral column, with respect to mediastinal disease, masses in the paravertebral regions are usually included in the posterior mediastinum.[radiologykey.com]
Dysphagia
  • Symptoms are usually related to local effects of the neoplasm, including compression and invasion, and can manifest as respiratory distress, dysphagia, diaphragm paralysis, or superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome.[radiologykey.com]
  • Symptoms  Chest pain  Dyspnea  Cough  Fever  Weight loss  Fatigue  Dysphagia  Night sweats 16.[slideshare.net]
  • Lesions in the posterior mediastinum may encroach on the esophagus, causing dysphagia or odynophagia.[msdmanuals.com]
  • One patient was clinically asymptomatic, another presented with thoracic pain, and the third dysphagia. The blood test was normal in two cases, the other revealing microcytic chronic anaemia and hypochromia.[academic.oup.com]
  • Tracheobronchial tree and lungs Esophagus Superior vena cava (SVC) Pleura and chest wall Adjacent intrathoracic nerves Pathophysiologic changes that can be produced by invasion of specific structures include the following: Obstructive pneumonia and hemoptysis Dysphagia[emedicine.medscape.com]
Constipation
  • Treatment involving chemotherapy and radiation can have serious side effects, such as: changes in appetite bleeding problems anemia constipation diarrhea fatigue hair loss infection nausea/vomiting pain swelling Radiation may also cause changes in the[healthline.com]
Sexual Dysfunction
  • Factors for Optimal Supportive Care of Patients with Cancer 1526 Management of the Bone Marrow Transplant Patient 1536 Management of Anxiety and Depression in Adult Cancer Patients Toward an EvidenceBased Approach 1552 Reproductive Complications and Sexual[books.google.com]

Workup

Mediastinal Mass
  • The variation in these imaging findings played an important role in the differential diagnosis of this uncommon mediastinal mass.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • (NLM, Medical Subject Headings) ALSO IN ENCYCLOPEDIA : Mediastinal Mass Mediastinal Lymphangioma Mediastinal Lymph Node Mediastinal Liposarcoma Mediastinal Lipomatosis Mediastinal Lipoma Mediastinal Leiomyosarcoma Mediastinal Leiomyoma Mediastinal Hemorrhage[tititudorancea.com]
  • Vascular tumors are uncommon mediastinal masses making up Keywords Mediastinum Neoplasm Germ cell seminoma Vascular Extragonadal Hemangioma This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.[link.springer.com]
  • A definitive diagnosis can be obtained for many mediastinal masses with needle aspiration or needle biopsy.[msdmanuals.com]
Esophageal Motility Disorder
  • Motility Disorders 1887 Thomas W Shields 2069 Barretts Esophagus 1925 166 Radiographic Computed Tomographic 2079 Cardial Incompetence and Associated Mediastinum 2103 Katherine A Barsness and Marleta Reynolds 168 Mediastinal Tumor Markers 2131 Esophageal[books.google.com]

Treatment

  • Your doctor will tailor your treatment to your type of mediastinal tumor. Talk to your doctor to get more accurate information about your prognosis.[healthline.com]
  • Issues in Prostate Cancer Survivors 1859 Physical and Psychosocial Issues in Lung Cancer Survivors 1871 Cancer Survivorship Issues in Colorectal Cancer 1891 Medical and Psychosocial Issues in Transplant Survivors 1902 Second Malignancies After Radiation Treatment[books.google.com]

Prognosis

  • Talk to your doctor to get more accurate information about your prognosis.[healthline.com]
  • They are clinically and biologically distinct from primary testicular tumors and seem to have a worse prognosis. Due to the rarity of the disease, the choice of treatment is a matter of debate.[link.springer.com]

Etiology

  • Additional diagnostic testing, usually imaging and biopsy, is indicated to determine etiology. CT with IV contrast is the most valuable imaging technique.[msdmanuals.com]
  • In this new 8th edition an outstanding editorial team from world-renowned medical centers continues to hone the leading edge forged in previous editions, with timely information on biology, immunology, etiology, epidemiology, prevention, screening, pathology[books.google.es]
  • Etiology Neurogenic tumors of the mediastinum arise from cells of the nerve sheath, paraganglionic tissue, and autonomic ganglia, all of which originate embryonically from the neural crest.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Epidemiology

  • The epidemiology of the thyroid carcinoma. Crit. Rev. Oncog. 1993, 4 : 25–52. PubMed Google Scholar 27. Shore R.E. Issues and epidemiological evidence regarding radiation-induced thyroid cancer. Radiat. Res. 1992, 131 : 98–111.[link.springer.com]
  • […] surgery and chemotherapy, no vascular invasion, no yolk sac or choriocarcinoma components Gross description Unencapsulated, homogenous fleshy mass with indistinct boundaries and invasion of adjacent structures, hemorrhage or necrosis Choriocarcinoma Epidemiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • […] anterosuperior mediastinal mass Pain in the chest, abdomen , or bone s (for no known reason) Skin rash or itchy skin Weight loss (for no known reason) Diagnostic Exams Flow cytometry Immunohistochemistry Immunophenotyping Progression and Transformation None Epidemiology[seer.cancer.gov]
  • In this new 8th edition an outstanding editorial team from world-renowned medical centers continues to hone the leading edge forged in previous editions, with timely information on biology, immunology, etiology, epidemiology, prevention, screening, pathology[books.google.es]
  • Epidemiology A review of collected series reveals that many mediastinal neoplasms and masses vary in incidence and presentation depending on patient age. [8] Specific types of mediastinal tumors characteristically occur in specific areas within the mediastinum[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Staging of Alberto de Hoyos 2177 Less Common Malignant Tumors of the Diagnostic Investigation of Mediastinal 2195 The Use of Prosthetic Grafts to Replace 195 Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma of the Mediastinum 2411 2261 Benign and Malignant Neurogenic 2415 Pathophysiology[books.google.com]
  • Pathophysiology Tumors and cysts of the mediastinum can produce abnormal effects at both systemic and local levels.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • Reasons for Procedure Cancerous tumors must be removed to prevent local tissue damage and the spread of cancer. Without removal or treatment, the cancer could spread to other areas of the body.[winchesterhospital.org]
  • In this new 8th edition an outstanding editorial team from world-renowned medical centers continues to hone the leading edge forged in previous editions, with timely information on biology, immunology, etiology, epidemiology, prevention, screening, pathology[books.google.es]
  • […] in these areas can manifest the following symptoms: Chest pain Shortness of breath Fluid buildup between the two layers of the pleura Fatigue Cough accompanied by fever Bone and joint pain These cancers are fast-acting and, in their advanced stages, prevent[disability-benefits-help.org]
  • These type of tumors cannot be prevented. Mediastinal Tumor Menu The mediastinum is divided into three sections What are mediastinal tumors? Tumors (also called neoplasms) are masses of cells. They can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer).[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • In cases where the tumor is malignant the prognosis is guarded and care should be taken to prevent the tumor from invading other organs of the body and complicating things as a result of Mediastinal Tumors, although with appropriate treatment and taking[epainassist.com]

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