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Mendelson's Syndrome

Aspiration Syndromes


Presentation

  • Abstract Four cases of Mendelson's syndrome (acid pulmonary aspiration) are presented. They all demonstrate an acute diffuse alveolar filling pattern. This appearance is by no means specific.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The purpose of this summary is present ability to perform prevention of aspiration of gastric contents of patients at risk for a difficult intubation and ventilation mask.[ijtra.com]
  • Weiner, Bernard Gonik, Caroline Crowther, and Stephen Robson present an evidence-based approach to the available management options, equipping you with the most appropriate strategy for each patient.[books.google.de]
  • How do you make sure that a “risk stomach” is not present in your patients? Share with your colleagues and our readers the gastric aspiration safety net that you employ. References 1. Knight Paul R (September 1999). “Curtis L.[page2anesthesiology.wordpress.com]
  • Aspiration contents may include gastric juice, blood, bile, water or an association of them. [1] Presentation [ edit ] Mendelson's syndrome is characterised by a bronchopulmonary reaction following aspiration of gastric contents during general anaesthesia[en.wikipedia.org]
Pain
  • Fever, pleuritic chest pain, cough and dyspnea are common symptoms of pneumonia. [4][explainmedicine.com]
  • […] of anaesthesia paralysis head down positioning inadequate cricoid pressure use of other airways other than cuffed endotracheal tube opioids use of inhalational agent (N2O) Surgical laparoscopic insufflation of abdomen bowel or visceral manipulation pain[lifeinthefastlane.com]
Hyperthermia
  • Malignant hyperthermia - very rare. Investigations These may include: FBC. Arterial blood gases. Microbiology work-up (including blood culture, culture of aspirate and sputum). CXR. Ultrasound for effusion. CT scan of chest in all cases.[patient.info]
Painful Cough
  • Fever, pleuritic chest pain, cough and dyspnea are common symptoms of pneumonia. [4][explainmedicine.com]
Short Neck
  • Patients can be identified according to certain characteristics - eg, short neck, history of sleep apnoea, previous difficult intubation, etc.[patient.info]

Workup

Elevated Sedimentation Rate
  • The blood tests may show signs of inflammation such as elevated sedimentation rate, CRP and white blood cell count. The lung damage and pneumonias can be visualized by chest X-ray or computed tomography.[health-tutor.com]

Treatment

  • Abstract The history of Mendelson's Syndrome is briefly covered and the current problem of the condition in regard to prevention, amelioration and treatment is discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Early recognition of this syndrome will result in prompt treatment which differs significantly from that of other causes of this radiographic appearance. The differential diagnosis is discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Causes of the syndrome of Mendelssohn Symptoms of the syndrome of Mendelssohn Diagnosis of the syndrome of Mendelssohn Treatment of the syndrome of Mendelssohn Mendelson's syndrome - treatment Mendelson's syndrome pulmonology, obstetrics, anesthesiology[medicalformat.com]
  • Prepare for clinical challenges and save time in addressing them thanks to expert advice on treatment options from international contributors.[books.google.de]
  • Links: treatment amniotic fluid embolism[gpnotebook.co.uk]

Prognosis

  • Diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. [ 10 ] Prognosis The mortality can be as high as 60%.[patient.info]
  • Through his newly gained knowledge and cooperation with thorax surgeons, Mendelson’s work contributed significantly to improving the prognosis for pregnant women with valve anomalies. It was a pioneering effort.[whonamedit.com]

Etiology

  • The etiologic agents is believed to be aspiration of acidic stomach contents, other compounds, e.g. bile, may also play a role.[radiopaedia.org]
  • Etiology Aspiration or inhalation of particulate matter, fluids, or secretions from the stomach and/or oropharynx into the lungs may result in any of four different clinical syndromes: (1) chemical pneumonia ( CP ), aspiration of gastric acid and contents[radiologykey.com]
  • A study of the frequency of hiatal hernia and gastroesophageal reflux in interstitial pulmonary fibrosis of obscure etiology. Chest. 1976 Apr; [PubMed PMID: 1261317] [21] Sladen A,Zanca P,Hadnott WH, Aspiration pneumonitis--the sequelae.[statpearls.com]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology The incidence has been quoted as between 1 in 3,000 and 1 in 6,000 anaesthetics. [ 4 ] Although the incidence has been dropping due to improved anaesthetic practice, there are concerns that the obesity epidemic may increase the risk (see[patient.info]
  • He has since completed further training in emergency medicine, clinical toxicology, clinical epidemiology and health professional education.[lifeinthefastlane.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Because it is of such clinical significance to anesthesiologists, the study of aspiration of gastric contents has a long history : (reference 1) • 1781 – John Hunter performed the first scientific experiments investigating the pathophysiology of aspiration[page2anesthesiology.wordpress.com]
  • Prevention of aspiration remains the most important aim and there appears to be consensus around the world that preventative measures should be used more. [ 2, 3 ] Pathophysiology [ 2 ] If aspirated material is sufficiently acid (pH lower than 2.5) and[patient.info]
  • The author describes the actual mechanisms by which Metabolic Syndrome progresses and causes damage in the body, including the action of insulin and the pathophysiology of insulin resistance.[elsevier.com]
  • […] result of aspiration of gastric contents Aspiration pneumonia is infection of the lungs following aspiration by micro-organisms colonising the GI tract Distinguishing from aspiration pneumonitis may be difficult, and the distinction is controversial PATHOPHYSIOLOGY[lifeinthefastlane.com]

Prevention

  • Abstract The history of Mendelson's Syndrome is briefly covered and the current problem of the condition in regard to prevention, amelioration and treatment is discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention of aspiration remains the most important aim and there appears to be consensus around the world that preventative measures should be used more. [ 2, 3 ] Pathophysiology [ 2 ] If aspirated material is sufficiently acid (pH lower than 2.5) and[patient.info]
  • In order to prevent Mendelson's syndrome is necessary to observe the correct algorithm of anesthesia during emergency surgery.[medicalformat.com]
  • The purpose of this summary is present ability to perform prevention of aspiration of gastric contents of patients at risk for a difficult intubation and ventilation mask.[ijtra.com]
  • It is a well-recognized hazard of general anaesthesia in obstetrics and may be prevented by giving gastric-acid inhibitors (e.g. cimetidine or ranitidine) or sodium citrate before inducing anaesthesia. C. L.[oxfordreference.com]

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