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Meningeal Disorder

Meninges


Presentation

  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Formation About 70% of the CSF present in the brain and spinal cord is produced by the choroid plexuses.[what-when-how.com]
  • Improve your interpretation of presenting symptoms with 38 new topics and 40 new images in the Differential Diagnosis section, and optimize patient care with more than 250 new figures and tables.[books.google.com]
  • LME was found at initial clinical presentation in 5 cases and at clinical relapses leading to a diagnosis of NMOSD in 6 cases.[nn.neurology.org]
  • […] or they present with only one area of involvment.[physio-pedia.com]
  • Here, we report a case of NBD presenting as HP. A 25-year-old man presented with chronic headache and a 10 day history of blurred vision.[synapse.koreamed.org]
Short Stature
  • These are the most common cause of abnormally short stature.[clinicalgate.com]
  • Clinical features of the disorder include short stature, smallness of the head, obliquely slanted eyes, a flattened face, wide hands with a single transverse palmar crease, short digits, and weak muscles.[britannica.com]
Italian
  • A man named Stephen of Antioch, an Italian translator of the 12th century, was translating the work of a 10th century Persian physician called Haly Abbas into Latin, the common language of the learned European men at that period in time.[study.com]
Palpitations
  • […] blurring, photophobia, diplopia 78 Acoustic and vestibular complaints: dizziness/dysequilibrium, tinnitus 74 Dysesthesias: tenderness, numbness/tingling, burning 59 Chronic fatigue 58 Bulbar and coordinative problems: 52 Dysphagia/dysarthria, sleep apnea Palpitations[clinicalgate.com]
Mitral Valve Prolapse
  • Features in addition to the above skin changes can include easy bruising, mitral valve prolapse, hernias, flat feet, and mild to moderate scoliosis.[clinicalgate.com]
Chest Deformity
  • Other skeletal changes are anterior chest deformity, scoliosis, thoracic lordosis, high arched palate with crowded teeth, and some ligamentous laxity. Ocular problems include myopia, flat corneas, and ectopia lentis.[clinicalgate.com]
Normal Stature
  • This category also includes some patients with craniosynostosis (see later discussion) who have cranial and facial malformations associated with ocular change and cleft palate but normal stature and body proportions; this is more common in the more severe[clinicalgate.com]
Skeletal Dysplasia
  • Chondrodysplasias Chondrodysplasias, also referred to as skeletal dysplasias, are heritable skeletal disorders characterized by dwarfism and abnormal body proportions. These are the most common cause of abnormally short stature.[clinicalgate.com]
Ectopia Lentis
  • Ocular problems include myopia, flat corneas, and ectopia lentis. The major life-threatening problem is aortic aneurysm or dissection; aortic and mitral valves can also be affected.[clinicalgate.com]
Papilledema
  • An elevation and blurring of the optic disk margin (papilledema) may occur due to increased pressure in the subarachnoid space along the optic nerve.[what-when-how.com]
  • Symptoms/ signs of increased ICP Headache- worse in morning because brain edema rises overnight from lying down Altered mental status- *** most important indicator; irritability and depressed level of alertness and attention Nausea and projectile vomiting Papilledema[brainaacn.org]
  • PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI Defective resorption of CSF into the superior sagittal sinus due to sinovenous thrombosis accounts for some cases of the syndrome of pseudotumor cerebri, which is characterized by headache, papilledema, increased CSF pressure and normal[neuropathology-web.org]
  • Same feelings in upper sections of the spine dependent on cyst locations Headaches (due to the changes in the CSF pressure) and sometimes accompanied by blurred vision, double vision, pressure behind the eyes and optic nerve pressure causing papilledema[tarlovcystfoundation.org]
  • Table TABLE 2 Neurologic Signs and Symptoms of Metastatic Brain Tumors Signs and symptoms Percentage of patients Hemiparesis 55 to 60 Impaired cognition 55 to 60 Headache 25 to 40 Focal weakness 20 to 30 Altered mental status 20 to 25 Sensory loss 20 Papilledema[aafp.org]
Neck Stiffness
  • Symptoms can include headache, fever, changes in consciousness, confusion, neck stiffness, sensitivity to light, seizures, and changes in mood, personality, or behavior.[hopkinsmedicine.org]
  • Other common symptoms include neck pain, neck stiffness, nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and/or sound, sense of imbalance, ringing in the ears and changes in hearing.[cedars-sinai.edu]
  • Neither further focal neurological deficits nor meningeal irritation signs including neck stiffness were detected.[synapse.koreamed.org]
  • Aseptic Meningitis West Nile meningitis manifests as headache and fever following back pain, myalgias, and rash in 20% to 50% of patients. 21 Meningeal signs are often absent on physical examination, with neck stiffness and photophobia observed in only[clevelandclinicmeded.com]
  • Pain is often prominent and can present as neck stiffness, localized spinal tenderness or radicular discomfort that radiates from the spine into an arm or leg ( Table 3 ). 22 – 24 Weakness is also common and usually affects both legs in a lower motor[aafp.org]
Dysesthesia
  • Patients (364) Suboccipital headache (frequent retro-orbital component); exertional and postural accentuation 81 Ocular disturbances: floaters, blurring, photophobia, diplopia 78 Acoustic and vestibular complaints: dizziness/dysequilibrium, tinnitus 74 Dysesthesias[clinicalgate.com]
  • ., pronation/supination of hands); indicates cerebellar dysfunction dysesthesia pain or discomfort in response to a stimulus (e.g., touch) that would not be expected to cause pain dysgeusia distorted taste perception dysgraphia a writing disability that[strokecenter.org]
Reduced Consciousness
  • Toxic encephalopathy, characterized by reduced consciousness, seizures, and delirium, may occur in poisoning with alcohols, sedatives, or many other chemicals or drugs—the latter usually taken in overdose or for a prolonged period.[britannica.com]
Learning Difficulties
  • Learning difficulties owing to hearing and sight impairments can occur if the student is not assisted within the learning environment.[clinicalgate.com]

Workup

  • The combination of LME and pleocytosis in all cases, especially in the 2 cases with increased CSF-PMNL and fever, led to extensive virologic and bacteriologic workup, which proved negative both in blood and CSF.[nn.neurology.org]
Muscle Biopsy Abnormal
  • Some have mild muscle biopsy abnormalities. Compression neuropathies or brachial plexopathy are less common associations.[clinicalgate.com]

Treatment

  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether treatment of spinal meningeal cysts that compress sacral spinal nerve roots is associated with relief of persistent genital arousal disorder.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ., post-ictal headaches or cerebrovascular disease) have been ruled out Treatment of migraine Acute attacks: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, anti-emetics, serotonin agonists, ergot derivatives, rest in dark.[brainaacn.org]
  • In other cases, treatments such as surgery, medicines, or physical therapy can correct the source of the problem or improve symptoms.[icdlist.com]
  • Goldstein is also Clinical Director of the Neurology, Learning, and Behavior Center in Salt Lake City, where he provides assessment, case management, and treatment for individuals experiencing diverse neuropsychological impairments throughout the lifespan[books.google.com]
  • Treatment of meningiomas includes surgical removal or radiosurgery (external beam radiation is aimed at the tumor and a small region surrounding it).[what-when-how.com]

Prognosis

  • Encephaloceles toward the front of the skull usually do not contain brain tissue and generally have a better prognosis.[rarediseases.org]
  • In this section: Definition Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prognosis MRI image showing a typical meningioma tumor A meningioma is a tumor that arises from a layer of tissue (the meninges) that covers the brain and spine.[neurosurgery.ucla.edu]
  • Prognosis of Symptomatic Tarlov Cysts Those who have progressive and prolonged symptoms run a risk of neurological damage, if the cysts continue to compress nerve structures.[tarlovcystfoundation.org]
  • For meningeal syndrome is characterized by changes in the cerebrospinal fluid; on the basis of her research will ultimately be set not only the diagnosis of acute Meters, but define its shape, which is important for prognosis and treatment.[medicalency.com]
  • Long-term prognosis for clinical West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 10: 2004; 1405-1411. Back to Top[clevelandclinicmeded.com]

Etiology

  • The association of an infectious uveitis with an acute or chronic meningoencephalitis is unusual but occasionally the eye examination may suggest an infectious etiology or even a specific organism responsible for a meningeal syndrome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The etiology is unknown; at present we do not know what causes this disease. It is a devastating disease in some patients that can produce a multitude of symptoms.[archive.myelitis.org]
  • Numb chin syndrome in cancer patients: etiology, response to treatment, and prognostic significance. Neurology. 1992;42:1181–4. Copyright 1999 by the American Academy of Family Physicians. This content is owned by the AAFP.[aafp.org]
  • Cases of infectious or parainfectious events before the onset of neurologic symptoms and NMOSD have been reported, adding to the etiological diversity in NMOSD. 32, –, 36 It is possible that infection may act as a precipitating factor in the development[nn.neurology.org]
  • When no inflammatory, infectious or tumoral etiology or evidence of intracranial hypotension is present, a diagnosis of idiopathic pachymeningitis is considered, with possible dural calcifications.[em-consulte.com]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiologic data were collected and the type, number, and location of the meningeal cysts in each patient were determined on magnetic resonance imaging.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Most registries and epidemiological studies classify encephaloceles using broad categories like frontal, parietal, occipital and sphenoidal.[rarediseases.org]
  • "Epidemiology and etiology of meningioma". Journal of Neuro-Oncology. 99 (3): 307–14. doi : 10.1007/s11060-010-0386-3. PMC 2945461. PMID 20821343. a b Starr, CJ; Cha, S (26 May 2017).[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Check historic epidemiologic details of importance in CNS inflammation *exposure to illnesses in other humans *exposure to vectors such as ticks or mosquitoes *exposure to animals, especially sick ones (rabies, antropozoonozes) *recent travel (especially[lf2.cuni.cz]
  • Image 3: Sarcoidosis: Epidemiology It is very well known that there is some type of genetic susceptibility to Sarcoidosis.[archive.myelitis.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Side of headache often corresponds to side of pathology (but not always) Vascular headache Migraine (term also used to mean cluster headache) Pathophysiology thought to involve inflammatory, autonomic, serotonergic, neuroendocrine, and other influences[brainaacn.org]
  • The newly discovered vessels — which were also identified in human samples — could explain a variety of pathophysiological conundrums, namely how the immune system contributes to neurological and psychiatric disease.[scientificamerican.com]
  • The pathophysiology of HP is not well understood, although subacute or chronic meninigeal inflammation has been considered as potential causes. In this case, during the differential diagnosis, BD was revealed.[synapse.koreamed.org]
  • Patients seldom recall a specific mosquito bite, but they are often self-reported active persons with significant outdoor—and therefore mosquito—exposures. 12 Back to Top Pathophysiology WNV is a member of the Japanese encephalitis complex of viruses[clevelandclinicmeded.com]
  • Mutations in NF2 are commonly expressed in meningiomas located in the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. [13] Pathophysiology [ edit ] Micrograph of a meningioma with brain invasion (WHO Grade II); the tumour (bottom/right of image) has the typical[en.wikipedia.org]

Prevention

  • One of the beneficial functions of the blood-brain barrier is to prevent entry of blood-borne foreign substances into the brain tissue.[what-when-how.com]
  • Rapidly find the answers you need with separate sections on diseases and disorders, differential diagnosis, clinical algorithms, laboratory results, and clinical preventive services, plus an at-a-glance format that uses cross-references, outlines, bullets[books.google.com]
  • Prevention As several types of bacteria can cause bacterial meningitis, so a range of vaccines is necessary to prevent infection. The first vaccine was created in 1981 to protect against 4 of the 13 subtypes of N. meningitides.[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • Can herpes meningoencephalitis be prevented? Avoiding herpes virus infections in the first place can help you prevent herpes meningoencephalitis.[hopkinsmedicine.org]
  • Treatable - 0% Emergent - ED Care Needed - Preventable/Avoidable - 0% Emergent - ED Care Needed - Not Preventable/Avoidable - 0% Primary diagnosis of injury 0% Primary diagnosis of mental health problems 0% Primary diagnosis of substance abuse 0% Primary[medicbind.com]

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