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Meningeal Plague

Meningeal Plagues


Presentation

  • This book presents views from anthropology about this much publicized and complex problem.[books.google.com]
  • Presents global perspectives from the world's leaders in this specialty to put the latest expert knowledge to work for you and your patients.[books.google.de]
  • Pharyngeal plague - this follows consumption of Y. pestis eg in food or inhalation and presents as tonsillitis with local lymphadenopathy. Pestis minor - presents with mild fever and lymphadenopathy and usually settles in a week.[patient.info]
  • Clinical presentation The usual clinical presentation is bubonic plague, which presents as a sudden onset of fever and chills, with enlarged lymph nodes (buboes), which may suppurate.[health.nsw.gov.au]
  • The patient's CSF was PCR positive, but her clinical presentation, normal CT and MRI, and negative CSF culture were not consistent with meningitis.[academic.oup.com]
Fever
  • Elucidation of diseases like Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Chikungunya, avian influenza, etc. which have caught global attention.[books.google.de]
  • Tick-borne Rickettsia rickettsii Rocky Mountain spotted fever Rickettsia conorii Boutonneuse fever Rickettsia japonica Japanese spotted fever Rickettsia sibirica North Asian tick typhus Rickettsia australis Queensland tick typhus Rickettsia honei Flinders[en.wikipedia.org]
  • The victim also has a high fever, head and body aches, chills, and exhaustion.[en.citizendium.org]
Chills
  • Use the reconstituted vaccine within 1 hour by keeping over chilled pack in a thermocol box. Burn empty vials or dip in boiling water.[biomed.co.in]
  • Onset is usually abrupt, with chills and high fever to 104 F (40 C), accompanied by nausea, vomiting, oliguria, rapid pulse and respiration, and mental dullness which shortly gives way to marked anxiety or excitement.[isradiology.org]
  • Chills, a fever of up to 106 F, weak heartbeat and low blood pressure occur suddenly. Hemorrhages darken the skin (the name “Black Death”).[austincc.edu]
  • The infected person may also experience headaches, dizziness, chills, and abdominal complaints, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.[pestworld.org]
  • In septicemic plague, the bacteria multiply in the blood, causing symptoms such as fever, chills, weakness, abdominal * pain, nausea (NAW-zee-uh), and vomiting.[humanillnesses.com]
High Fever
  • The high fever usually lasts 2-5 days, and if the patient lives, the temperature will gradually fall to normal in about 2 weeks. In fatal cases, secondary septicemic and pneumonic plague ensue.[isradiology.org]
  • The victim also has a high fever, head and body aches, chills, and exhaustion.[en.citizendium.org]
  • In pneumonic plague, caused by inhaling the bacteria, the sudden high fever may be accompanied by a shortness of breath and a cough, perhaps coughing up blood. Meningeal plague looks like meningitis at the outset.[drgreene.com]
  • Initial symptoms include high fever, chills, muscle aches, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and extreme exhaustion.[www1.nyc.gov]
  • The onset of primary plague pneumonia is usually abrupt, with high fever, tachycardia and headache. Cough develops within 24 hours. Sputum is mucoid at first and then becomes bright red and foamy. Chest X-rays show a rapidly progressing pneumonia.[www2.health.vic.gov.au]
Malaise
  • There is usually no prodromal period, although the patient may have malaise and headache for 1 or 2 days.[isradiology.org]
  • Initial signs and symptoms may be nonspecific with fever, chills, malaise, myalgia (muscular pain or tenderness), nausea, prostration, sore throat and headache.[ph.ucla.edu]
  • Signs and Symptoms: Infection causes febrile illness characterized by headache, myalgia, malaise, shaking chills, prostration, and gastrointestinal symptoms.[austincc.edu]
  • An LCMV infection has two phases; the first phase has non-specific signs and symptoms such as fever, malaise, lack of appetite, muscle aches, headache, nausea, and vomiting.[pestworld.org]
Epilepsy
  • Traditional views hold that a somewhat epilepsy-like disturbance in a "trigger center" in the brainstem activates the trigeminal nerve which sends branches to the face, the scalp, to muscles surrounding blood vessels in the head and to the meninges.[sciencedaily.com]
  • Growing posteriorly, it indents the temporal lobe and thus uncinate fits or other symptoms of complex partial epilepsy may become manifest.[thamburaj.com]
Nausea
  • In addition to the buboes, there may be pustules, carbuncles, eschar, or papules at the site of the infected flea bite Septicemic Flea bite or infection through skin Blood stream Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, hypotension, hepatosplenomegaly[en.citizendium.org]
  • Initial signs and symptoms may be nonspecific with fever, chills, malaise, myalgia (muscular pain or tenderness), nausea, prostration, sore throat and headache.[ph.ucla.edu]
  • "For one thing," he adds, "the symptoms of a bad migraine headache are the same as in meningitis, the bacterial or viral inflammation of the meninges: throbbing headache, nausea, and sensitivity to light and sound."[sciencedaily.com]
  • Onset is usually abrupt, with chills and high fever to 104 F (40 C), accompanied by nausea, vomiting, oliguria, rapid pulse and respiration, and mental dullness which shortly gives way to marked anxiety or excitement.[isradiology.org]
Vomiting
  • This makes the flea hungry and they then bite a human and vomit the bacteria into the bite. The flea dies of subsequent starvation as the bacteria in the stomach inhibits blood flow to the gut making them vomit when they eat.[patient.info]
  • In addition to the buboes, there may be pustules, carbuncles, eschar, or papules at the site of the infected flea bite Septicemic Flea bite or infection through skin Blood stream Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, hypotension, hepatosplenomegaly[en.citizendium.org]
  • The medieval name black death is thought to have originated from the deeply darkened skin, bleeding, vomiting blood, and tissue death associated with septicemic and pneumonic plague.[emedicinehealth.com]
  • Onset is usually abrupt, with chills and high fever to 104 F (40 C), accompanied by nausea, vomiting, oliguria, rapid pulse and respiration, and mental dullness which shortly gives way to marked anxiety or excitement.[isradiology.org]
Tachycardia
  • ECG reveals sinus tachycardia and ST-T changes. Obtain a CT scan of the head in a patient with altered mental status.[slideplayer.com]
  • The onset of primary plague pneumonia is usually abrupt, with high fever, tachycardia and headache. Cough develops within 24 hours. Sputum is mucoid at first and then becomes bright red and foamy. Chest X-rays show a rapidly progressing pneumonia.[www2.health.vic.gov.au]
  • She developed worsening tachycardia, tachypnea, and hypotension, consistent with septic shock, and was transferred to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. At that time, several insect bites were noted on both flanks.[academic.oup.com]
  • Septicemic plague Because of an overwhelming infection with the plague bacillus, patients with septicemic plague have a toxic appearance and may present with tachycardia, tachypnea, and hypotension. Hypothermia is common.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Diplopia
  • Medial sphenoid wing meningiomas: They present with slowly progressive ipsilateral visual impairment with or without diplopia. Diplopia secondary to oculomotor paresis is more common in the diffuse variety.[thamburaj.com]
Visual Hallucination
  • On admission to the hospital, the patient had intermittent delirium and visual hallucinations. Her exam was notable for clear breath sounds and the absence of nuchal rigidity or other signs of meningismus.[academic.oup.com]
Headache
  • "For one thing," he adds, "the symptoms of a bad migraine headache are the same as in meningitis, the bacterial or viral inflammation of the meninges: throbbing headache, nausea, and sensitivity to light and sound."[sciencedaily.com]
  • There is usually no prodromal period, although the patient may have malaise and headache for 1 or 2 days.[isradiology.org]
  • The infected person may also experience headaches, dizziness, chills, and abdominal complaints, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.[pestworld.org]
  • The symptoms of Plague Meningitis are stiff neck, fever, headache, and coma. The Plague Meningitis is treated with antibiotics.[novusbio.com]
  • Signs and Symptoms: Infection causes febrile illness characterized by headache, myalgia, malaise, shaking chills, prostration, and gastrointestinal symptoms.[austincc.edu]
Seizure
  • On the day of admission she had multiple episodes of emesis followed by a generalized tonic-clonic seizure.[academic.oup.com]
  • […] the buboes, there may be pustules, carbuncles, eschar, or papules at the site of the infected flea bite Septicemic Flea bite or infection through skin Blood stream Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, hypotension, hepatosplenomegaly, delirium, seizures[en.citizendium.org]
  • (may be the only symptom for septicemic plague) Nausea , vomiting (may be bloody) Constipation , diarrhea , and black or tarry stools Cough (may contain blood) Shortness of breath Stiff neck Fever, heart irregularities, low blood pressure Confusion, seizures[emedicinehealth.com]
  • Clinical features: The clinical presentation of a meningioma is classically with seizures, hemiparesis, visual field loss, aphasia or other focal symptoms. The clinical presentation depends on the location of the meningioma.[thamburaj.com]
  • In addition, neurologic involvement (encephalopathy, seizures, myelitis, radiculitis, cerebellitis, facial and other cranial or peripheral palsies), fever of unknown origin, debilitating myalgia, arthritis or arthralgia (affecting mostly women 20 years[basicmedicalkey.com]
Confusion
  • "a confusing array of signs and symptoms...as the expression of different maladies."[myweb.rollins.edu]
  • .), encephalitis (drowsiness, confusion, sensory disturbances, and/or motor abnormalities, such as paralysis), or meningoencephalitis (inflammation of both the brain and meninges). Most patients who develop neurological disease due to LCMV survive.[pestworld.org]
  • Upon arrival to the local emergency room, she was confused, had a core temperature of 107 F, and a white blood cell (WBC) count of 12 200/mm 3. Providers instituted cooling measures then transferred the patient to a tertiary hospital.[academic.oup.com]
  • Abdominal pain (may be the only symptom for septicemic plague) Nausea , vomiting (may be bloody) Constipation , diarrhea , and black or tarry stools Cough (may contain blood) Shortness of breath Stiff neck Fever, heart irregularities, low blood pressure Confusion[emedicinehealth.com]
Irritability
  • Symptoms include irritation and inflammation of eye and swelling of lymph glands in front of the ear. Oropharyngeal infection results from eating or drinking contaminated food or water.[pestworld.org]
  • Chronic irritation, from an ossified subdural hematoma or tubercular pachymeningitis, was incriminated in the past as a causative factor. However, it is not considered relevant.[thamburaj.com]
  • Plague Dictionary of Collective Nouns and Group Terms COPYRIGHT 1985 Gale a group which, by their size, number, or nature, cause devastation or irritation.[encyclopedia.com]
Altered Mental Status
  • Abstract We report a case of bubonic plaque in a 7-year-old patient who presented with a core temperature of 107 F, seizures, vomiting, altered mental status, and septic shock.[academic.oup.com]
  • Obtain a CT scan of the head in a patient with altered mental status.[slideplayer.com]

Workup

Brain Edema
  • Peritumoral brain edema is a common feature and suggests an aggressive nature.[thamburaj.com]

Treatment

  • Treatment of emerging disease issues including zoonoses, H1N1 virus, harmful algae blooms, and animal-related pesticides UNIQUE![books.google.de]
  • Symptoms usually develop gradually and may vary from mild to severe; However, without prompt treatment, it can cause serious complications and may lead to death.[medcoi.com]
  • Diagnostic Testing If plague is suspected, pre-treatment specimens should be taken if possible, but treatment should not be delayed.[cdc.gov]

Prognosis

  • […] abortive plague, pestis minor Overview Historical Perspective Classification Pathophysiology Causes Differentiating Yersinia Pestis Infection from other Diseases Epidemiology and Demographics Risk Factors Screening Natural History, Complications and Prognosis[wikidoc.org]
  • Prognosis Without treatment, the course of the disease is rapidly fatal. The documents contained in this web site are presented for information purposes only.[orpha.net]
  • Prognosis The untreated mortality of plague is high especially for pneumonic plague where it approaches 95% and septicaemic plague which is fatal without therapy. Untreated bubonic plague has a mortality of 30-75%.[wywhoo.wordpress.com]
  • Microbiology for Surgical Infections: Diagnosis, Prognosis and Treatment. Academic Press / Elsevier. Whaltam, Maryland, EE UU. 2014.[ehu.eus]
  • Prognosis The untreated mortality of plague is high especially for pneumonic plague where it approaches 95% and septicaemic plague which is fatal without therapy [ 2 ]. Untreated bubonic plague has a mortality of 30-75%.[patient.info]

Etiology

  • PubMed search builder options Subheadings: analysis anatomy and histology blood cerebrospinal fluid chemically induced classification complications diagnosis diagnostic imaging drug therapy economics enzymology epidemiology ethnology etiology genetics[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Etiology Plague is transmitted from animals to humans by fleas. Rodents are the reservoir for the disease. Plague is also transmitted between humans via the respiratory route.[orpha.net]
  • Yersinia pestis–etiologic agent of plague. Clinical Microbiology Reviews . 1997;10(1):35-66.[alifeinthewoods.com]
  • Etiology Y. pestis is a nonmotile, non - spore-forming, pleomorphic, gram-negative coccobacillus.[slideshare.net]
  • ETIOLOGY AND EPIDEMIOLOGY F. tularensis is a class A bioterrorism agent ( Chap. 261e ) .[basicmedicalkey.com]

Epidemiology

  • Each chapter focuses on an individual disease and provides scientific background and social history as well as the current basics of infection, epidemiology, and control.[books.google.de]
  • Epidemiology Occupational exposure to infected animals or their products (such as skin, wool, and meat) is the usual pathway of exposure for humans.[slideshare.net]
  • […] death, septicimic plague, cellulocutaneous plague, meningeal plague, pharyngeal plague, abortive plague, pestis minor Overview Historical Perspective Classification Pathophysiology Causes Differentiating Yersinia Pestis Infection from other Diseases Epidemiology[wikidoc.org]
  • PubMed search builder options Subheadings: analysis anatomy and histology blood cerebrospinal fluid chemically induced classification complications diagnosis diagnostic imaging drug therapy economics enzymology epidemiology ethnology etiology genetics[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Summary Epidemiology It is extremely rare in Europe but still spreads in Africa and, to a lesser degree, in Asia and Latin America.[orpha.net]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Kothagadi M.B.B.S [4] Synonyms and Keywords: Plague, bubonic plague, pneumonic plague,Black death, septicimic plague, cellulocutaneous plague, meningeal plague, pharyngeal plague, abortive plague, pestis minor Overview Historical Perspective Classification Pathophysiology[wikidoc.org]
  • Pathophysiology When a rat flea ingests a blood meal from an animal infected with Y. pestis, the coagulase of the bacteria causes the blood to clot.[slideshare.net]
  • Ticks and human lice have been identified more lectures 14 rabiezahran@gawab.com www.medicalppt.blogspot.com more lectures Pathophysiology When a rat flea ingests a blood meal from an animal infected with Y pestis, the coagulase of the bacteria causes[slideplayer.com]
  • (A review of human plague by an author who has had considerable firsthand experience in the diagnosis and treatment of plague and study of the pathophysiological mechanisms of infection with Yersinia pestis.[springerlink.com]

Prevention

  • It covers the diagnosis, therapy, prevention, and control of a variety of individual diseases, and examines the social and behavioral issues that could contribute to epidemics.[books.google.de]
  • Image courtesy of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Ga. 38.[slideshare.net]
  • […] bipolar-staining bacilli, pleomorphic in culture, requires amino acids for growth Treatment for bubonic and pneumonic plague Prevention of urban plaque rat control and public health measures like insecticides Prevention of sylvatic plague impossible because[quizlet.com]

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