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Menopause

Climacteric female


Presentation

  • Abstract The clinical presentation of menopause can resemble the symptoms of a mood disorder.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggested that later age at menopause was associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes. 2017 The Authors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a patient with a venous malformation of the lip that presented for the first time after she entered menopause which was temporally related to a significant increase in her serum FSH levels that were measured.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present work aims to review the current data on this subject.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract We present a case of a granulosa-cell tumor, which can cause menopause at an earlier than normal age.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Weight Gain
  • Menopause Can Hormone Therapy for Menopause Prevent Weight Gain? Menopausal women who are on the treatment are less likely to gain dangerous belly fat — but there’s a catch, a new study shows.[everydayhealth.com]
  • Perimenopause weight gain is oftentimes misdiagnosed and is one of the first signs of hormonal imbalance.[bodylogicmd.com]
  • Experiencing hot flashes can continue up until five years post menopause. iStock Weight gain around your mid-section is typical Weight gain around your mid-section is typical and is often due to the fact that you may need to adjust your daily total calories[healthcentral.com]
  • Weight gain Many people associate the menopause with weight gain but, as we get older, we need fewer calories. Eating a bit less sounds a simplistic solution but it will help. Watch the amount of fat in your diet and cut back on sugar.[bbcgoodfood.com]
  • Symptom 25 (weight gain) often around the waist and thighs, resulting in 'the disappearing waistline' Symptom 29 (shock sensation) "the feeling of a rubber band snapping in the layer of tissue between skin and muscle.[project-aware.org]
Fatigue
  • We describe the case of a 31-yr-old student helicopter pilot who presented to the Aviation Psychiatry Department with a several-month history of inconsistent training performance, mood lability, tearfulness, anxiety, insomnia, fatigue, and decreased concentration[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This can be due to your body’s increased needs for valuable micronutrients, or to the “crash cycle” pattern of fatigue/carbohydrates/fatigue with hormonal imbalance that so many of us fall into.[womentowomen.com]
  • The night sweats that may occur during perimenopause can also contribute to feelings of tiredness and fatigue, which can have an effect on mood and cognitive performance.[medicinenet.com]
Crying
  • And as the day went on, I kept having to excuse myself from meetings and go into the bathroom to cry.[lennyletter.com]
  • With more severe depression symptoms, she says -- "crying all the time, lack of energy, not being able to function, a real hopelessness" -- antidepressants are needed.[news.yahoo.com]
  • Nati also says the physical symptoms of hot flashes, brain fog, crying, and abdominal weight gain felt like they came “out of nowhere.” 6.[healthline.com]
  • Hey, if we don’t laugh, we’ll cry and never stop. Pick it up on Amazon or at your favorite bookstore.[menopausegoddessblog.com]
Coronary Artery Disease
  • RECOMMENDATION: the use of transdermal as compared with oral estrogen preparations may be considered less likely to produce thrombotic risk and perhaps the risk of stroke and coronary artery disease. 3.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Increased Energy
  • This can help : increase energy promote a better night’s sleep improve mood promote your general well-being Communicating your needs Talk to a therapist or psychologist about any feelings of depression, anxiety, sadness, isolation, insomnia, and identity[healthline.com]
Night Sweats
  • Low doses of oral contraceptives can relieve hot flashes and night sweats for women whose symptoms start before they go through menopause, she said.[cbsnews.com]
  • CONCLUSIONS: In most menopausal women, loss of ovarian function results in VMS, including hot flashes, night sweats, and mood and sleep disturbances.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Similar to their US counterparts, Costa Rican women enter menopause at 50 years of age, have similar symptoms, including hot flashes and night sweats, as well as an overall negative attitude toward the menopausal transition.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Night sweats Night sweats (episodes of drenching sweats at nighttime) sometimes accompany hot flashes. This may lead to awakening and difficulty falling asleep again, resulting in unrefreshing sleep and daytime tiredness. 4.[medicinenet.com]
Flushing
  • On this page: Hot flushes Menopause and memory Mood disturbances Sex & menopause Continence and prolapse Hot flushes Around 80 per cent of women experience hot flushes and night sweats during menopause.[thewomens.org.au]
  • Hot flushes Try to cut down on foods that are likely to trigger or worsen hot flushes and night sweats.[bbcgoodfood.com]
  • A large placebo effect exists for the management of hot flushes, therefore further research against active controls is required. Management options should be collaboratively explored.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The brain reacts by producing a hormone signal called Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and then the sweats and flushes result.[dailymail.co.uk]
  • Clonidine Clonidine is a medicine that was originally designed to treat high blood pressure, but it may also reduce hot flushes and night sweats in some women.[hse.ie]
Dry Skin
  • Dry skin Legumes, nuts and seeds such as pumpkin, sunflower, almonds contain vitamin E, zinc and calcium. These nutrients and the oils in nuts and seeds may help prevent dry skin and normalise hormone levels.[bbcgoodfood.com]
  • […] spreads over the body) Night sweats and/or cold flashes Vaginal dryness; discomfort during sex Urinary urgency (a pressing need to urinate more frequently) Difficulty sleeping (insomnia) Emotional changes (irritability, mood swings, mild depression) Dry[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • skin, dry eyes or dry mouth Women who are still in the menopause transition (perimenopause) may also experience : Breast tenderness Worsening of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) Irregular periods or skipping periods Periods that are heavier or lighter than[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • skin Loss of breast fullness Symptoms, including changes in menstruation, are different for every woman.[mayoclinic.org]
  • What can you do to help symptoms like dry skin and brittle hair? Paramount "Moisturizing, being physically active, and continuing to have sexual activity can all help. Not everybody experiences these symptoms though." 15.[buzzfeed.com]
Hirsutism
  • (abnormal hair growth in women) Facial hirsutism is very common in post-menopausal women not on HRT Alopecia ( hair loss from areas where it is normally present) Approximately a third of post-menopausal women may develop hair loss This is usually at[dermnetnz.org]
  • Facial hirsutism (excess hair growth) can increase after menopause due to hormonal changes. This growth may be slowed with MHT. MHT can be given as tablets, skin patches and as vaginal preparations such as creams and pessaries.[southerncross.co.nz]
Alopecia
  • […] vulvar burning, irritation, stinging and rawness (rather than itch) May also involve the thighs Cause is not known (thought to be neurological) Hirsutism (abnormal hair growth in women) Facial hirsutism is very common in post-menopausal women not on HRT Alopecia[dermnetnz.org]
Panic Attacks
  • Such changes might include: tearfulness mood swings lack of energy anxiety and/or panic attacks feeling blue, low, downhearted or depressed.[thewomens.org.au]
  • ‘The most common psychological symptoms are a loss of self-esteem and confidence, anxiety and panic attacks. Lots of people have depressive symptoms but they’re not actually depressed. They’re short-tempered, irrational.[telegraph.co.uk]
Irritability
  • White, thinned, wrinkled skin Recurrent fissures of posterior fourchette (vaginal tears) Painful intercourse ( dyspareunia ) Labial fusion Dyaesthetic vulvodynia Chronic vulvar burning, irritation, stinging and rawness (rather than itch) May also involve[dermnetnz.org]
  • The most commonly reported individual symptoms were: hot flushes (65.9% (95% CI: 59.4%-72.1%)), difficulty falling asleep (49.6% (95% CI: 42.9%-56.3%)), depressive mood (46.0% (95% CI: 39.4%-52.8%)), irritability (45.1% (95% CI: 38.5%-51.9%)), and anxiety[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Menopause Overview Menopause symptoms include irregular periods, hot flashes, night sweats, sleep difficulties, and irritability. Menopause treatments may include hormone replacement therapy or herbal.[webmd.com]
  • Irregular menstrual cycles Hot flashes Sleep disturbances or insomnia Night sweats Elevated heart rate Mood changes, such as irritability, anxiety, or depression Vaginal dryness or discomfort during sexual intercourse Urinary problems Memory or concentration[hormone.org]
Insomnia
  • We describe the case of a 31-yr-old student helicopter pilot who presented to the Aviation Psychiatry Department with a several-month history of inconsistent training performance, mood lability, tearfulness, anxiety, insomnia, fatigue, and decreased concentration[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Most notably, these include hot flashes, mood disorders, insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep problems are often accompanied by depression and anxiety.[sleepfoundation.org]
  • Irregular menstrual cycles Hot flashes Sleep disturbances or insomnia Night sweats Elevated heart rate Mood changes, such as irritability, anxiety, or depression Vaginal dryness or discomfort during sexual intercourse Urinary problems Memory or concentration[hormone.org]
  • Managing sleeping issues Use OTC sleep medications to temporarily manage your insomnia or consider discussing natural sleep aids with your doctor.[healthline.com]
  • Hot flashes, depression, insomnia, fatigue, or a dry vagina are thought to be due to a slowing down of the ovaries and therefore, are treated with hormone-like drugs.[womenshealthspecialists.org]
Headache
  • If you need HRT for menopausal symptoms but develop headaches as a result of the treatment managing your headaches can be difficult. It is not, however, impossible.[migrainetrust.org]
  • However, women affected with new symptoms of racing heart, urinary changes, headaches, or other new medical problems should see a doctor to make sure there is no other cause for these symptoms.[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • […] night sweats – hot flushes that occur at night difficulty sleeping – this may make you feel tired and irritable during the day a reduced sex drive (libido) problems with memory and concentration vaginal dryness and pain, itching or discomfort during sex headaches[nhs.uk]
Agitation
  • Her mood is altered and she may be more agitated, depressed, apathetic, and forgetful.[bodylogicmd.com]
Vaginal Dryness
  • Patient reported vaginal dryness significantly improved following treatment (P CONCLUSION: The SmartXide Fractional CO 2 laser is a safe and efficacious treatment for GSM.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Caused by low estrogen levels after menopause, it results in bothersome symptoms, including vaginal dryness, itching, dyspareunia, urinary urgency and increased frequency, and urinary tract infections.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • They are seeking immediate relief for their menopausal symptoms, including hot flashes and vaginal dryness. They are also considering the impact of menopause on their risk of chronic disease and their long-term health.[ucsfhealth.org]
  • Hypoestrogenism is the root cause of many signs and symptoms of Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause (vaginal dryness, atrophy, dyspareunia, urinary disorders, etc.).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSION: Microablative fractional radiofrequency was effective in treating symptoms of vaginal dryness and dyspareunia, and eliminated the use of vaginal lubricant during the period observed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hot Flushes
  • On this page: Hot flushes Menopause and memory Mood disturbances Sex & menopause Continence and prolapse Hot flushes Around 80 per cent of women experience hot flushes and night sweats during menopause.[thewomens.org.au]
  • Hot flushes Try to cut down on foods that are likely to trigger or worsen hot flushes and night sweats.[bbcgoodfood.com]
  • A large placebo effect exists for the management of hot flushes, therefore further research against active controls is required. Management options should be collaboratively explored.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clonidine Clonidine is a medicine that was originally designed to treat high blood pressure, but it may also reduce hot flushes and night sweats in some women.[hse.ie]
  • The most common physical symptoms of the menopause and peri-menopause are hot flushes and night sweats.[telegraph.co.uk]
Dyspareunia
  • CONCLUSION: Results of this study indicate that CO 2 -laser therapy may contribute to complete regression of dyspareunia and dryness and reestablishment of normal sexual function in postmenopausal women, in a dose-response manner.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Postmenopausal women with severe intensity of dyspareunia and dryness were eligible to be included in this study. Primary outcomes were dyspareunia and dryness.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of intravaginal prasterone obtained in the three randomized clinical studies performed in postmenopausal women suffering from moderate to severe (MS) dyspareunia due to vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • All GSM symptoms (dryness/dyspareunia/itching/burning/dysuria/urgency/frequency) and UI decreased significantly and consistently in all available publications.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • KEYWORDS: atrophic vaginitis; dyspareunia; genitourinary syndrome of menopause; menopause; vaginal atrophy; vaginal estrogen[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Amenorrhea
  • Abstract Menopause is defined as permanent cessation of menstrual periods, determined retrospectively after a woman has experienced 12 months of amenorrhea without any other obvious cause.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • PATIENT: A 43-year-old woman with primary hypogonadotropic hypoestrogenic amenorrhea, with very low levels of plasma FSH throughout her life. INTERVENTIONS: Pulsatile GnRH was administered IV at the dose of 4 micrograms every 90 minutes for 20 days.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It is possible that underweight women may have been misclassified with an earlier age at menopause if being underweight led to amenorrhea.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Natural menopause is recognized to have occurred after 12 consecutive months of amenorrhea, for which there is no other obvious pathological or physiological cause.[gpnotebook.co.uk]
  • "It said, 'Menopause is physiological amenorrhea' — which means it's the normal loss of periods and there's nothing else to say about it," Utian remembers. But menopause is more than the just reverse of menstruation.[npr.org]
Urinary Urgency
  • Caused by low estrogen levels after menopause, it results in bothersome symptoms, including vaginal dryness, itching, dyspareunia, urinary urgency and increased frequency, and urinary tract infections.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • \ ˌme-nə-ˈpȯ-zəl , ˌmē- \ adjective Examples of menopause in a Sentence Recent Examples on the Web Low estrogen levels after menopause can lead to GSM, which comes with its own slew of bothersome symptoms, like vaginal dryness, itching, dyspareunia, urinary[merriam-webster.com]
  • You may be transitioning into menopause if you begin experiencing some or all of the following symptoms: Hot flashes (a sudden feeling of warmth that spreads over the body) Night sweats and/or cold flashes Vaginal dryness; discomfort during sex Urinary[my.clevelandclinic.org]
  • urgency and increased frequency, and urinary tract infections. — Lindsay Carlton, Fox News, "Actress Cheryl Hines on the awkwardness of menopause," 28 Sep. 2018 Most commonly, this loss of bone density occurs due to hormonal changes that accompany aging[merriam-webster.com]
  • urgency (a pressing need to urinate more frequently) Difficulty sleeping (insomnia) Emotional changes (irritability, mood swings, mild depression) Dry skin, dry eyes or dry mouth Women who are still in the menopause transition (perimenopause) may also[my.clevelandclinic.org]

Treatment

  • No patients reported seeking emergent medical treatment. Patient reported vaginal dryness significantly improved following treatment (P CONCLUSION: The SmartXide Fractional CO 2 laser is a safe and efficacious treatment for GSM.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011, either at least 5 years after completion of treatment for invasive breast cancer or at least 6 months after completion of treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In total, 378 women (88.5%) considered that their symptoms required treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The increasing number of alternative treatments for VMS requires improvement in patient-provider communication about treatment risks and benefits, individualization of treatment to meet patient needs and attitudes, and careful[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RECENT FINDINGS: There have been several studies regarding the use of laser therapy for the treatment of GSM. Most of these studies show a trend toward safe and effective treatment in the short term (less than or equal to 12 weeks).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • BACKGROUND: Estrogen receptors can regulate growth in papillary thyroid cancer and may affect prognosis after menopause.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] have any of the following: Periods that come closer together than every 21 days Periods that last longer than seven days Periods that are very heavy Bleeding between periods Vaginal bleeding that starts after menopause (after one year without a period) Prognosis[drugs.com]

Etiology

  • […] studies to prospectively examine a variety of adiposity measures and risk for early menopause, our findings that women who were underweight in early or mid-adulthood had elevated risk for early menopause can assist in efforts to better understand the etiology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • SOME OF THE 35 SYMPTOMS MAY ALSO BE SIGNS OF THE FOLLOWING: hypothyroidism diabetes depression with another etiology other medical conditions If you have reason to believe you may have one of these conditions, please see your doctor for treatment. * Note[project-aware.org]

Epidemiology

  • Author information 1 Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This chapter provides an analysis of epidemiological and clinical evidence and proposes a mechanism for the effect of menopause and MHT on type 2 diabetes development and prevention.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Additionally, about 25% of the DREAMS women live in the 27-county region included in the expanded Rochester Epidemiology Project medical records linkage system, providing additional information on those women.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The epidemiological and trials evidence for the effects of hormone replacement therapy on musculoskeletal pain and arthritis (primarily from RCTs of HRT for other menopausal symptoms) are discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We, therefore, recommend that consideration should be given to collecting data on reproductive factors and exposure to HRT, as routine practice, in future epidemiological and clinical studies of these cancers.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • This Practice Pearl addresses the pathophysiology and effect of atrophic genital changes and offers advice on how vaginal health and comfortable sexual activity can be restored.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This observation supports the hypothesis that FSH might influence the pathophysiology of vascular malformations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • PURPOSE: This article reviews the pathophysiology of vasomotor symptoms (VMS) of menopause and current management options. DATA SOURCES: Current scientific literature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Furthermore, KHQ, UDI-6, MCS12/PCS12, FSFI, overall sexual satisfaction and measurements of the effect of laser therapy on the local pathophysiology improved significantly.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • Abstract Randomized trials suggest that menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) prevents type 2 diabetes. Still, the mechanisms of these antidiabetic effects are a matter of controversy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Findings emphasize class-based differences with respect to long-term health and preventive practices according to three major themes: priority to long-term time horizons, attention given to risk factors of diseases, and control over future health.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To prevent such serious complications, it is important to ensure that intrauterine devices, once they have served the purpose and even if they are asymptomatic, are removed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Current research on interventions and treatments that aim to reduce alcohol use disorder (AUD) or to prevent its occurrence in middle-aged and elderly women is limited.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RECOMMENDATION: HRT is not recommended for the prevention of diabetes. 8. RECOMMENDATION: In women with previously diagnosed diabetes, the use of HRT should be individualized, taking in to account age, metabolic, and cardiovascular risk factors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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