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Menstruation


Presentation

  • Patients presenting with and without menstruation disorders were evaluated to determine if they presented concomitant hyperprolactinemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a case that meets the criteria of HH in a 34-year-old woman. The lesion presented as a reddish papule on her left hip. It changed periodically during menstruation and the changes included.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • SUMMARY: Cultural differences in the presentation and impact of menstrual problems appear to be present with a greater impact on psychosocial functioning found with particularly oligo/amenorrhoea.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The idea that menstruation occurs as a consequence of SD has been proposed in the past, but here we present a novel hypothesis on how SD evolved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Rarely, patients can present with spontaneous breast development and/or menstruation. A fifteen-year-old girl presented to our clinic with the complaint of primary amenorrhea. On physical examination, her external genitals were completely female.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pleural Effusion
  • A right posterior pleural mass and pleural effusion were found. A pleural biopsy was taken and confirmed at histology as endometrial tissue. She did well on surgical excision and hormonal therapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Abdominal Pain
  • Additionally, 76% of healthy controls reported having abdominal pain consistent most probably with dysmenorrhea.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to examine the intensity of the abdominal pain at periovulation and menstruation. In our results, PDM patients had significant higher VAS-rating during menstruaion than periovulation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The pain usually begins when menses start (or just before) and persists for the first 1 to 2 days; this pain, described as spasmodic, is superimposed over constant lower abdominal pain, which may radiate to the back or thigh.[merckmanuals.com]
  • The abdominal pain, backaches, and nausea during a woman’s period can actually affect how she thinks and feels, reducing her cognitive ability.[medicaldaily.com]
  • Patients may present with other symptoms common to early pregnancy, including nausea, breast fullness, fatigue, low abdominal pain, heavy cramping, shoulder pain, and recent dyspareunia.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Abdominal Cramps
  • Your period may be accompanied by abdominal cramps and other physical sensations like breast sensitivity, bloating, and diarrhea. For cramps and minor pain, you can take over-the-counter pain reliever medications like Ibuprofen.[sexualityandu.ca]
  • You may experience abdominal cramps. These cramps are caused by the contraction of the uterine and the abdominal muscles to expel the menstrual fluid.[menstrupedia.com]
Aphthous Stomatitis
  • OBECTIVES: Menstruation triggers several conditions such as migraine, recurrent aphthous stomatitis and acne vulgaris in healthy individuals.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Angioedema
  • The use of tranexamic acid in secondary and idiopathic angioedema should be considered.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The patient had a clinical picture of urticaria, angioedema and shock at each menstruation for a period of 2 years until hysterectomy was performed. The studies showed no hormonal or immunological change.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Periorbital Fullness
  • Examination findings included right periorbital fullness and subconjunctival hemorrhage. Extensive serologic and radiographic workup ruled out other potential causes of recurrent orbital hemorrhage.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Irritability
  • Ginger for Nausea, Menstrual Cramps, and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Powdered ginger can be a highly effective, cheap, easy-to-use, safer treatment for nausea, migraine headaches, and menstrual blood loss and pain.[nutritionfacts.org]
  • Besides bleeding from the vagina, you may have Abdominal or pelvic cramping pain Lower back pain Bloating and sore breasts Food cravings Mood swings and irritability Headache and fatigue Premenstrual syndrome , or PMS, is a group of symptoms that start[medlineplus.gov]
  • Many women are so used to dealing with irregular periods, cramps , irritability and bloating that they assume PMS is part of a normal menstrual cycle. It’s not.[womenshealthnetwork.com]
  • Irritable During Your Period? Do This on the Mat to Feel Better Hint: When it comes to a bad mood, don't sit and fester. Get your body (and Qi) moving.[yogajournal.com]
Neglect
  • Today, the bleeding is completely neglected and considered an uneventful episode of no clinical significance. Yet clinical studies have linked the risk of bleeding to a series of events indicating fetal distress.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Even if Coutinho could prove conclusively that repeated pregnancy existed for the ancient woman, he neglects to note that this would not describe a woman's "natural state" (a condition imposed by nature) but, rather a social and environmental condition[web.archive.org]
Myelopathy
  • Abstract The case is reported of a woman with a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula whose intermittent myelopathy became aggravated with menstruation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dysmenorrhea
  • Migraine has been associated with menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, and endometriosis, the latter particularly in chronic migraine.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Dysmenorrhea had a prevalence of 73%, and school absenteeism was observed among 31% of the adolescents. In addition, 66% of the participants considered that dysmenorrhea affected their activities of daily living.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In Dominica, women offer dysmenorrhea, delayed menses, and menorrhagia as prevalent menstrual troubles.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Additionally, 76% of healthy controls reported having abdominal pain consistent most probably with dysmenorrhea.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevalence and impact of dysmenorrhea on hispanic female adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med Dec 2000; 154: 1226–1229. Google Scholar 10. Klien J, Litt l. Epidemiology of adolescent dysmenorrhea. Pediatrics 1981; 68: 661–664. Google Scholar 11.[doi.org]
Vaginal Bleeding
  • A 37-year-old woman experienced monthly vaginal bleeding after hysterectomy. At laparoscopy a tubo-ovarian endometriotic mass was revealed with a fistula into the vaginal vault. The mass was adherent to the left ureter and the sigmoid colon.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • bleeding N93.0 Postcoital and contact bleeding N93.1 Pre-pubertal vaginal bleeding N93.8 Other specified abnormal uterine and vaginal bleeding N93.9 Abnormal uterine and vaginal bleeding, unspecified N94 Pain and other conditions associated with female[icd10data.com]
  • Also called: Menses, Menstrual period, Period On this page See, Play and Learn No links available Summary Menstruation, or period, is normal vaginal bleeding that occurs as part of a woman's monthly cycle.[medlineplus.gov]
  • Symptoms and Signs Spotting refers to very light vaginal bleeding or brown discharge that occurs between menstrual periods.[medicinenet.com]
Dyspareunia
  • N94.11 Superficial (introital) dyspareunia Reimbursement claims with a date of service on or after October 1, 2015 require the use of ICD-10-CM codes.[icd10data.com]
  • Patients may present with other symptoms common to early pregnancy, including nausea, breast fullness, fatigue, low abdominal pain, heavy cramping, shoulder pain, and recent dyspareunia.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Workup

  • Extensive serologic and radiographic workup ruled out other potential causes of recurrent orbital hemorrhage. The patient was diagnosed with orbital vicarious menstruation and treated with oral contraceptive pills, with marked clinical improvement.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These can be ruled out by means of blood tests (see Workup ). Finally, endometrial malignancy, though rare in women younger than 40 years, should also be on the differential diagnosis for adolescents with irregular menses.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Pleural Effusion
  • A right posterior pleural mass and pleural effusion were found. A pleural biopsy was taken and confirmed at histology as endometrial tissue. She did well on surgical excision and hormonal therapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Women with treatment failure (follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level 20 mIU/mL after at least 12 months and failure for becoming pregnant; n 16) or with treatment success (becoming pregnant spontaneously and having a live birth; n 20) were selected,[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • As additional clinical features were identified and treatments were ruled ineffective, further diagnoses were proposed. The patient's symptoms ceased with oral contraceptive treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Efficacy, disturbance in bleeding patterns in the treatment and post-treatment cycles, satisfaction with the treatment, and subsequent contraception preference were analysed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Additionally, about 70% of patients with menstrual disorders received risperidone treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The similarity of the formulae for both groups suggests that the treatment had no significant effect on the AH.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Although tumour size 2 cm is negatively associated with DFS, RM after CIA is not associated with poor prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • A third of these occur in pregnancy or post-partum period and a variation in hormonal levels is thought to play an etiologic role.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract The incessant ovulation hypothesis for the etiology of ovarian carcinoma has been accepted for decades, but recent evidence strongly implicates the fallopian tube mucosa as the source of most high-grade "ovarian serous carcinomas."[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Subsequent follow-up scans proved normal, confirming the benign etiology of these findings. The case shows that radioactive blood accumulation in the uterine cervix can interfere with MIBG scan interpretation in menstruating patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Testing these models will ultimately shed light on the evolutionary significance of menstruation, as well as on the etiology of human reproductive disorders like endometriosis and recurrent pregnancy loss.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] associated with ambiguous genitalia, hyperandrogenism, and Cushing syndrome . [11] Yet another method of categorizing the etiologies of primary amenorrhea involves evaluating the components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis as well as[emedicine.medscape.com]

Epidemiology

  • Author information 1 Respiratory Epidemiology, Occupational Medicine and Public Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK a.amaral@imperial.ac.uk. 2 MRC-PHE Centre for the Environment and Health, London, UK. 3 Population[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 1 MRC Tropical Epidemiology Group, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK. 2 2 Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. 3 3 Edinburgh Clinical Trials Unit, University of Edinburgh[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Epidemiology of adolescent dysmenorrhea. Pediatrics 1981; 68: 661–664. Google Scholar 11. Chaturvedi SK, Chandra PS. Socio cultural aspects of menstrual attitudes and premenstrual experiences in India. Soc Sci Med 1991; 32: 349–351.[doi.org]
  • […] reducing the frequency of menstruation and ovulation might reduce the risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers and even extend fertility, but these ideas have not been proven by scientific study. 5 The association that has been identified in epidemiological[nwhn.org]
  • Global epidemiological study of variation of premenstrual symptoms with age and sociodemographic factors. Menopause International; 17(3): 96–101. Rapkin A. (2003). A review of treatment of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.[womenshealth.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Prostaglandin inhibitors used for management of dysmenorrhea are effective for associated menstrual migraine, suggesting a common pathophysiology. The interplay between serotonin and estrogen also deserves further research.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We speculate that hemorrhage in the adenomyosis legion and subsequent local thrombosis played crucial role in pathophysiology of this case of acute DIC.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The pathophysiological basis for this peculiar clinical manifestation and its management are discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The exact pathophysiological link from menstruation to migraine is hypothesized to be through fluctuations in female reproductive hormones, but the exact mechanisms remain unknown.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • As noted (see Pathophysiology ), cycles are not consistently ovulatory for the first few years after menarche, especially if menarche occurs at a later age.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Prevention

  • As iron storage is known to be a triggering factor of porphyria cutanea tarda, the possible role of menstruation as natural phlebotomy to prevent porphyria cutanea tarda exacerbation is discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Continued compliance with medication is essential to prevent recurrences. CONCLUSION: Factor V deficiency is rare. Coagulation disorders of this nature pose a challenge to gynecologists involved in patient management at the time of menses.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: Human pregnancy requires robust hemostasis to prevent hemorrhage during extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion of the decidualized endometrium, modification of spiral arteries and post-partum processes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Environmental factors, including socioeconomic conditions, nutrition, and access to preventive health care, may influence the timing and progression of puberty.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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