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Mental Disorder

Disorders Mental


Presentation

  • Patients who present to primary care with symptoms of fainting and dizziness, for which there is no adequate physical explanation, are frequently suffering from an undiagnosed psychiatric disorder.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract The diagnosis of mental disorder initially appears relatively straightforward: Patients present with symptoms or visible signs of illness; health professionals make diagnoses based primarily on these symptoms and signs; and they prescribe medication[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • METHOD: An aetiological model is presented and discussed. The discussion includes a range of risk factors for mental disorder.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present here the clinical cases of identical twins with Graves' disease associated with various mental disorders.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract The aim of the present study was to analyze if the genetic polymorphisms might predict suicide attempts in mental disorder patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fatigue
  • Patients who screened positive for depression, anxiety and PTSD reported significantly higher levels of pain, fatigue, and functional impairment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Wessely S (1997) Chronic fatigue syndrom: a 20th century illness? Scand J Work Environ Health 23:17–34 PubMed Google Scholar 37. Wessely S (1998) The epidemiology of chronic fatigue syndrome. Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc 7:10–24 PubMed Google Scholar 38.[doi.org]
  • . & Tops, M. ( 2003 ) Caffeine, fatigue and cognition. Brain and Cognition, 53, 82 – 94. Lucas, P. B., Pickar, D., Kelsoe, J. et al ( 1990 ) Effects of the acute administration of caffeine in patients with schizophrenia.[doi.org]
  • We have a package here of five symptoms—mild depression, some anxiety, fatigue, somatic pains, and obsessive thinking. ... We have had nervous illness for centuries. When you are too nervous to function ... it is a nervous breakdown.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Illi J, Miaskowski C, Cooper B, Levine JD, Dunn L, West C, Aouizerat BE: Association between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes and a symptom cluster of pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and depression. Cytokine 2012;58:437-447.[dx.doi.org]
Acute Intermittent Porphyria
  • Overall, the diagnosis of acute intermittent porphyria should be considered in any psychiatric syndrome with unexplained pain, especially if the pain is cyclical in nature [ 17 ].[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Acute intermittent porphyria: a study of 50 cases. Q. J. Med. 28, 183–209. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] Gross U., Puy H., Meissauer U., Lamoril J., Deybach J. C., Doss M., et al.. (2002).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • PubMed Google Scholar Santosh PJ, Malhotra S: Varied psychiatric manifestations of acute intermittent porphyria. Biol Psychiatry. 1994, 36 (11): 744-747. PubMed Google Scholar Goldberg A: Acute intermittent porphyria: a study of 50 cases.[dx.doi.org]
Weight Loss
  • People with anorexia will deny themselves food to the point of self-starvation as they obsesses about weight loss.[nami.org]
  • “Thinner Than a Yellow Flower, Weight-Loss Book Found in School Bag, Schoolgirl Falls Dead on Street,” reported another Chinese-language paper.[nytimes.com]
  • The first was that of a 53-year-old woman with a history of cognitive decline since the age of 20, and episodes of visual hallucinations, ataxia, abdominal pain and weight loss; diagnosis was achieved after an acute vomiting episode at 53 years of age[dx.doi.org]
  • PubMed Central PubMed Google Scholar Hirth JM, Rahman M, Berenson AB: The association of posttraumatic stress disorder with fast food and soda consumption and unhealthy weight loss behaviors among young women. J Womens Health. 2011, 20: 1141-1149.[dx.doi.org]
Family History of Depression
  • Genetic causes have been suggested from family studies that have shown that between 20 and 50 percent of children and adolescents with depression have a family history of depression and that children of depressed parents are more than three times as likely[web.archive.org]
  • A number of psychiatric disorders are linked to a family history (including depression, narcissistic personality disorder and anxiety).[en.wikipedia.org]
Inguinal Hernia
  • This dataset was evaluated to determine whether the timing of exposure to anesthesia 5 years of age for a single common procedure (pyloromyotomy, inguinal hernia, circumcision outside the perinatal period, or tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy) is associated[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Psychiatric Manifestation
  • STUDY SELECTION: Case reports, case series or reviews with original data regarding psychiatric manifestations and cognitive impairment published between January 1967 and June 2012 were included based on a standardized four-step selection process.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Other psychiatric manifestations are also found, as behavioral, cognitive, learning, and mood disorders. However, they are less frequent.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Psychiatric manifestations are widely known and well documented [ 40 – 43 ], occurring in 24–70% of patients in acute porphyria series [ 44, 45 ].[dx.doi.org]
  • Psychiatric manifestations may remain isolated for several years.[dx.doi.org]
Visual Hallucination
  • Literature analysis led us to propose a comprehensive list of atypical psychiatric symptoms including highly predominant visual hallucinations, compared to auditory ones, as well as confusion, catatonia or progressive cognitive decline.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In most cases, visual hallucinations are a crucial finding, although this is quite an unusual sign in the classical forms of schizophrenia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Hallucinations are a core symptom of schizophrenia and are more often auditory or at least, auditory hallucinations are more important than visual hallucinations.[dx.doi.org]
  • In this group of disorders, the psychiatric manifestations usually have a long-term course and have some special features such as the presence of catatonic symptoms or visual hallucinations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Happy Personality
  • Emotional stability as a major dimension of happiness. Personality and Individual Differences 31, 1357 – 1364. Hong, RY, Cheung, MW ( 2014 ).[doi.org]
Sexual Dysfunction
  • F52 Sexual dysfunction not due to a substanc... F53 Mental and behavioral disorders associat... F54 Psychological and behavioral factors ass... F55 Abuse of non-psychoactive substances F59 Unspecified behavioral syndromes associa...[icd10data.com]
  • Sexual dysfunction, gender identity disorder, and the paraphilias are examples of sexual and gender disorders.[webmd.com]
  • The DSM-III opened the door to loose diagnosis by defining conditions that were no more than slightly more severe versions of such everyday problems as mild depression, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, simple phobias, sexual dysfunctions, and sleep[doi.org]
  • Although sexual dysfunction appears to be inherent to the illness in patients with schizophrenia, it is also frequently reported during antipsychotic treatment, with interesting gender differences.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Behavior Problem
  • Pelham, Early Intervention for Children With Behavior Problems in Summer Settings, Journal of Early Intervention, 38, 2, (92), (2016).[doi.org]
  • Lau and others, “Abusive Parents’ Reports of Child Behavior Problems: Relationship to Observed Parent-Child Interactions,” Child Abuse & Neglect 30, no. 6 (2006): 639–55. 31.[doi.org]
  • Internalizing and externalizing behavior problem scores: Cross-ethnic and longitudinal measurement invariance of the Behavior Problem Index. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 68, 676 – 694. Hamdi, N. R., Krueger, R. F., & South, S.[doi.org]
  • Relationships Between Psychiatric Conditions and Behavior Problems Among Adults With Mental Retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 109(1), 21–33. (2004)109 2.0.CO;2 Rush, A. J., & Frances, A. (2000).[revistas.usal.es]
  • Childhood emotional and behavioral problems: reducing overdiagnosis without risking undertreatment. Dev Med Child Neurol 2012 54 492-4. The new somatic symptom disorder in DSM-5 risks mislabeling many people as mentally ill.[doi.org]
Headache
  • For instance, medical conditions that are accompanied by a high symptom burden, such as migraine headaches or back pain, can lead to depression .[rwjf.org]
  • Goadsby, P. ( 2003 ) Headache: migraine, cluster headache, and other primary headaches. In Oxford Textbook of Medicine ( 4th edn ) (eds Warrell, D., Cox, T. M., Firth, J. D. et al ), pp. 993 – 1001. Oxford : Oxford University Press. Goff, D.[doi.org]
  • It focuses on a teenager with migraine headaches, a dentist trying to decrease his risk for developing heart disease, and a woman with breast cancer, along with those who are treating them. 5.[learner.org]
  • Some of the most common side effects include: drowsiness dizziness dry mouth nervousness headaches shakiness confusion weight gain Interrupted education or training - Many people first develop symptoms of mental illnesses between the ages of 15 and 25[web.archive.org]
  • Maeno T, Kizawa Y, Ueno Y, Nakata Y, Sato T (2002) Depression among primary care patients with complaints of headache and general fatigue. Primary Care Psychiatry 8:69–72 CrossRef Google Scholar 20.[doi.org]
Apathy
  • […] neurodegenerative diseases include: Huntington’s disease ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) , or Lou Gehrig’s disease Parkinson’s disease all forms of dementia Some of the more common symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases include: memory loss forgetfulness apathy[healthline.com]
  • But then the anger, agitation, even apathy, and sympathy are also being amplified. That’s how an “up” day feels.[atlassian.com]
  • High doses (30 g) of glycine have been shown to reduce the more subtle symptoms of schizophrenia, such as social withdrawal, emotional flatness, and apathy, which do not respond to most of the existing medications [ 54 – 56 ].[doi.org]
  • […] should be carried out using sound methodology and an understanding of whether the desired effect is to treat a whole disease or instead focus on essential features of that disease: i.e. attempting to treat schizophrenia or improving memory and reducing apathy[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Schizophrenia is characterised by positive symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions and jumbled thinking; and negative symptoms such as apathy, poverty of speech, and withdrawal from social activities.[doi.org]
Dizziness
  • Patients who present to primary care with symptoms of fainting and dizziness, for which there is no adequate physical explanation, are frequently suffering from an undiagnosed psychiatric disorder.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Some of the most common side effects include: drowsiness dizziness dry mouth nervousness headaches shakiness confusion weight gain Interrupted education or training - Many people first develop symptoms of mental illnesses between the ages of 15 and 25[web.archive.org]
Lip Smacking
  • ., chewing, sniffing, slurping, lip smacking). Misophonia is not listed in any of the contemporary psychiatric classification systems.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Vitamin C Decreased
  • A double-blind, placebo controlled study that involved controlling elevated vanadium levels showed that a single 3 g dose of vitamin C decreases manic symptoms in comparison to placebo [ 45 ].[doi.org]

Treatment

  • ., internalizing's association with mood or anxiety treatment) than between-domain (e.g., internalizing's association with substance use disorder treatment) associations were found.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Receiving mental health treatment in prison was associated with greater risk of victimisation there. Receiving treatment appeared to mediate the relationship between mental disorders, symptoms, and victimisation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract New treatment approaches are needed for patients with severe and composite mental disorders who are resistant to conventional treatments.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Causes for treatment resistance are still unclear, although poor insight into the need of treatment may play a role ( 7, 8 ).[doi.org]
  • Causes for treatment resistance are still unclear, although poor insight into the need of treatment may play a role ( 7 , 8 ).[doi.org]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis and outcome in schizophrenia. Int J Ment Health 1988 ;17: 63 – 80. Google Scholar Crossref ISI 65. Ogawa, K, Miya, M, Watarai, A.[doi.org]
  • CONTEXT: Clinically relevant late-life depression has a prevalence of 16% and is associated with substantial societal costs through its disease burden and unfavorable prognosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Diagnosis can take only a few minutes, but time must be spent fleshing out the initial impressions, assessing immediate risks, and collecting information about personal and social circumstances that modify symptoms or affect management and long term prognosis[doi.org]
  • Context Clinically relevant late-life depression has a prevalence of 16% and is associated with substantial societal costs through its disease burden and unfavorable prognosis.[doi.org]
  • Although many parents want to avoid medication or the stigma of a mental diagnosis, the prognosis is brighter with proper treatment.[kidsmentalhealth.org]

Etiology

  • Neuroticism is etiologically not informative yet but useful as an efficient marker of non-specified general risk.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We identify four key issues that present challenges to understanding and classifying mental disorder: etiology, including the multiple causality of mental disorder; whether the relevant phenomena are discrete categories or dimensions; thresholds, which[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Jacques Jouanna and Véronique Boudon-Millot, The Typology and Etiology of Madness in Ancient Greek Medical and Philosophical Writing VI. Vivian Nutton, Galenic Madness VII.[brill.com]
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Literature Cited Abstract This review discusses issues and controversies with respect to the construct of a mental disorder, models of etiology and pathology, and domains of psychopathology.[doi.org]
  • The interplay and etiological continuity of neuroticism, difficulties, and life events in the etiology of major and subsyndromal, first and recurrent depressive episodes in later life. American Journal of Psychiatry 158, 885 – 891.[doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • Magruder, Mental Health Epidemiology (Psychiatric Epidemiology), International Encyclopedia of Public Health, 10.1016/B978-0-12-803678-5.00284-8, (54-62), (2017).[doi.org]
  • The cross national epidemiology of obsessive compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 1994;55(suppl):5-10. Google Scholar 10. Weissman MM, Bland RC, Canino GJ. et al. The cross-national epidemiology of social phobia: a preliminary report.[doi.org]
  • METHOD: Cross-sectional epidemiological study of a sample of 184 inmates. Socio-demographic and criminal data were collected by an ad hoc interview.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • METHODS: One thousand one hundred ninety households were selected, and 1158 adult participants consented to be interviewed with a structured epidemiological assessment while 32 refused to participate in the study interviews, giving a response rate of[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Despite several groups having shown that an overlapping pathophysiology exists between visceral pain and stress-related disorders the link between them is not clear yet.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Animal models of human disease have proven of considerable value in elucidating basic pathophysiological mechanisms and in developing novel treatments. However, modelling human mental disorders in experimental animals is fraught with difficulties.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This empirical evidence of shared genetic etiology for psychiatric disorders can inform nosology and encourages the investigation of common pathophysiologies for related disorders.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Finn DP, Viveros MP, Marco EM: The endocannabinoid system and emotional processing: pathophysiology and therapeutic potential. J Psychopharmacol 2012;26:3-6.[dx.doi.org]

Prevention

  • Indicated preventive interventions aimed at the prevention of depression could be combined with the prevention of anxiety disorders because the rate of comorbid depression and anxiety is high and because behavioral approaches for prevention could use[doi.org]
  • Power calculations are presented for studies examining universal prevention (aimed at the general population regardless of risk status), selective prevention (aimed at high-risk groups), and indicated prevention (aimed at subjects who have some symptoms[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • That’s not early detection, that’s not early prevention.” Basic Research NIMH Prevention[web.archive.org]
  • There is considerable evidence that various psychiatric conditions can be prevented through the implementation of effective evidence-based interventions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Structure to daily routines help prevent unnecessary stress, with regular times for eating, playing, learning, being with others, and sleeping.[web.archive.org]

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