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Metabolic Syndrome


Presentation

  • In the present study, the case of an 18‑year‑old male who presented with MS characteristics with central obesity (overweight and a waist circumference of 95 cm) and dyslipidemia (high TG, low HDL levels and low apoA‑I/apoB‑100) was reported.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This constellation of autoimmunity and metabolic syndrome presents a therapeutic challenge while highlighting the need for full laboratory assessment of AA patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These metabolic derangements present significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which is commonly recognized as the primary clinical outcome, although other outcomes are possible.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present findings suggest an association between MS and PD. Individuals with MS are 38% more likely to present PD than individuals without this condition.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a clinical approach to the treatment of syndromic insulin resistance.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Weight Gain
  • In addition to weight gain, higher consumption of SSBs is associated with development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Olanzapine (Zyprexa) - weight gain, hyperglycemia Sodium valproate and valproic acid (Depakote) - weight gain Clozapine (clozaril) - weight gain, hyperglycemia Quetiapine (Seroquel) - weight gain, hyperglycemia Risperidone (Risperdal) - weight gain, hyperglycemia[verywellhealth.com]
  • This is a case of 19 years male who presented with micropenis, marked gynaecomastia and weight gain. Childhood obesity and family history of diabetes predisposed him to future MetS.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This syndrome is diagnosed by medical conditions such as weight gain, high blood pressure, high blood glucose, and disturbance in lipid profile.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Risk factors specific to transplant recipients include the duration of pretransplant dialysis and posttransplant immunosuppression and weight gain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Family History of Alzheimer Disease
  • In this case study, a 38 year old male with metabolic syndrome (MetS), the APOE4 gene, early stage memory problems and a family history of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) was placed on a ketogenic diet combined with high intensity interval training (HIIT) for[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Renal Artery Stenosis
  • His medical history included previous smoking, prior hip replacements with prolonged osteomyelitis, and left renal artery stenosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Epilepsy
  • Copyright 2018 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Periodontitis
  • Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and periodontitis (PD), through a systematic review and meta-analysis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Comparison of body composition and periodontal disease using nutritional assessment techniques: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) J Clin Periodontol. 2003; 30 (4):321–327. [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] 103.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Papapanou, The Prevalence of Periodontitis in the US, Journal of Dental Research, 91, 10, (907), (2012). O. Adediran, A.A. Akintunde, A.E. Edo, O.G. Opadijo and A.M.[doi.org]
  • Tobe, Relationship between body mass index and periodontitis in young Japanese adults, Journal of Periodontal Research, 43, 4, (417-421), (2008). Sabina Sabharwal, Aymin Delgado‐Borrego and Raymond T.[doi.org]
Hypertension
  • RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome frequency was 43.3% overall, without significance between genders (P 0.14); but women had higher risk for obesity (OR 2.56, 95%CI 1.02-6.41; P 0.04) and systemic arterial hypertension (OR 3.29, 95%CI 1.39-7.81; P 0.006).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Hyperuricemia is strongly linked to hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity and hypertriglyceridemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Since metabolic syndrome includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, increased cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels, the aforesaid patient can be diagnosed with Metabolic Syndrome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • At baseline, hypertension was present in 28% of subjects, and 53% had metabolic syndrome with considerable variation in risk factors by age, sex, and race.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Narrow Hands
  • The patients, aged 14 and 16 years, had truncal obesity, mild mental retardation, hypotonia, narrow hands and feet, a high-arched palate, prominent upper central incisors, a high nasal bridge, and ocular abnormalities.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Angioedema
  • Similarly, widely used antihypertensive and lipid-lowering agents are associated with risk for serious complications, such as angioedema with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, possible increased risk for myocardial infarction and cancer with calcium[liebertonline.com]
Large Fontanel
  • We report on a consanguineous Lebanese family where two sibs had an axial hypotonia, developmental delay, hirsutism, large fontanels with delayed closure, and dysmorphic facial features that consist of frontal bossing, prominent eyes, slightly down-slanting[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hypertelorism
  • […] consanguineous Lebanese family where two sibs had an axial hypotonia, developmental delay, hirsutism, large fontanels with delayed closure, and dysmorphic facial features that consist of frontal bossing, prominent eyes, slightly down-slanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Delusion
  • We report the first case of antipsychotic-induced metabolic syndrome which was associated with development of delusions of pregnancy in a post-menopausal woman.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sleep Attack
  • All of the patients, both obese and non-obese, presented abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and plasma insulin level. (1) A 17-year-old girl (BMI 20.3) with a two-year history of daytime sleep attacks (e.g. on the bus, in a classroom, while reading[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Nocturnal Enuresis
  • Within that time his parents did not observe any episodes of daytime sleepiness, irritability or nocturnal enuresis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • Thomas Jensen, Amanda Wieland, Melanie Cree-Green, Kristen Nadeau and Shelby Sullivan, Clinical workup of fatty liver for the primary care provider, Postgraduate Medicine, 10.1080/00325481.2019.1546532, (1-12), (2018).[dx.doi.org]
Glucose Increased
  • Criteria include: Abdominal obesity BMI above 25 High triglycerides Low HDL cholesterol High blood pressure or using medicine to lower blood pressure High fasting blood glucose Increased blood clotting.[hopkinsmedicine.org]

Treatment

  • To investigate the link between insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome how to develop treatment approaches.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • treatment development as a guide.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSION: VPA treatment increased the risk factors for the development of metabolic syndrome such as hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress. However VPA treatment corrected the dyslipidemia of epileptic patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These considerations will lead to early diagnosis and implementation of treatment interventions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Momordica charantia (bitter melon) is traditionally used for treatment of diabetes in Ayurvedic Medicine.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • ALMS may have an adverse prognosis and is often underdiagnosed. Its mild form, which allows a long survival, may also be associated with the late complications of the metabolic syndrome, leading to increased vascular risk.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Ophthalmologists, endocrinologists and nephrologists should be aware of BBS because of its adverse prognosis--early onset of blindness, associated findings of metabolic syndrome and increased vascular risk, and severe renal impairment (the most frequent[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Long Term Prognosis Long term prognosis is good, if the syndrome is treated.[liversupport.com]

Etiology

  • Therefore, the pathogenic etiology may be akin to aspects of the metabolic syndrome via microvascular injury and neoangiogenesis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, the occurrence of left ventricular dysfunction can be multifactorial and the search of other concurrent etiologies, including ischemic heart disease, is pivotal in particular in patients at high cardiovascular risk.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • To identify an underlying genetic etiology in two siblings with severe short stature and gonadal failure. Clinical phenotyping, genetic analysis, complemented by in vitro functional studies of the candidate gene.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We attempt to define MetS mechanistically to determine its specific etiologies and to identify targets for therapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The exact etiology remains unclear, but it is known to be a complex interaction between genetic, metabolic, and environmental factors.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • Copyright information: Copyright 2007 Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health Linked Articles In this issue Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2007; 61 657-657 Published Online First: 13 Jul 2007.[dx.doi.org]
  • Participants were 161,326 (142,137 in urban and 19,189 in rural) subjects enrolled in the Korea Genome and Epidemiology Study. The prevalence of MetS was much higher in rural (39.8%) than that in urban (22.5%) subjects ( p 0.001).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This review provides summary of literature related to the syndrome's definition, epidemiology, underlying pathogenesis, and treatment approaches of each of the risk factors comprising metabolic syndrome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • The pathophysiology of MetS is not completely understood, but is thought to involve a complex interaction between the environment, genetic susceptibility, insulin resistance, and abnormal adipose tissue function.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The exact pathophysiology is unknown, but risk factors can include those criteria associated with metabolic syndrome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present 3 cases of extreme syndromic insulin resistance: lipodystrophy, autoantibodies to the insulin receptor, and mutations in the insulin receptor gene, with accompanying discussion of pathophysiology and treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The term "metabolic syndrome" refers to a clustering of specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors whose underlying pathophysiology is thought to be related to insulin resistance.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The prevalence, risk factors, pathophysiology, and potential consequences of the metabolic syndrome in the general population and in kidney transplant recipients are reviewed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • Author information 1 Department of Preventive Medicine, Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People's Republic of China; Guangdong Key Laboratory for Genome Stability & Disease Prevention, Shenzhen University Health Science[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 Experimental Vascular Medicine, Institute for Cardiovascular Prevention, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, 80336 Munich, Germany.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The Diabetes Prevention Program was a randomized controlled clinical trial of intensive lifestyle and metformin treatments versus standard care in 3234 subjects at high risk for type 2 diabetes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] activity, are effective in the prevention of type 2 diabetes in individuals who are overweight and have impaired glucose tolerance.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 Department of Food Biotechnology, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland. 2 Department of Epidemiology, Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw, Poland. 3 Department of Prevention[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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