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Methamphetamine Abuse


Presentation

  • The present review was designed to fill the gap in knowledge about methamphetamine abuse in the European Union (EU) and to illustrate the main clinical effects of prolonged use.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Patients in this risk group usually present for treatment due to severe pain. However, they may be reluctant to discuss their illegal drug habit. Anorexia may also be present.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Dentists need to be aware of the clinical presentation and medical risks presented by these patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, we present a case which suggests a close relationship between abuse of the illicit drug methamphetamine (MA) and ONJ.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The dentist needs to be aware of the clinical presentation and medical risks presented by these patients and to attempt to get the patient to seek professional help.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fatigue
  • Meth Withdrawal Symptoms Depression Anxiety Fatigue Intense craving Other Psychiatric Symptoms Chronic methamphetamine abusers can also experience other symptoms, including: Anxiety Confusion Insomnia Mood disturbances Violent behavior Psychotic Features[verywellmind.com]
  • When people stop taking it, withdrawal symptoms can include anxiety, fatigue, severe depression, psychosis, and intense drug cravings.[drugabuse.gov]
  • Possible symptoms include: Fatigue Long periods of sleep Intense hunger Depression Psychotic episodes Anxiety Irritability When a person needs treatment for meth use, it’s best to wait until entering the treatment to stop use.[thecanyonmalibu.com]
  • The rationale for considering replacement pharmacotherapy is that psychostimulants can counter the cravings, dysphoria, and fatigue produced by methamphetamine withdrawal and can alleviate methamphetamine-related cognitive impairment.[mdedge.com]
  • Even small doses of MA can increase wakefulness, attention, and physical activity and can decrease fatigue and appetite.[psychiatrictimes.com]
Pathologist
  • The cause of death for each case, as listed by the pathologist, is also discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Tachypnea
  • It changes levels of neurotransmitters in the brain, releasing dopamine and inhibiting nor epinephrine uptake which increases sympathetic nervous system activity and can lead to cardiac arrhythmia, hypertension and tachypnea.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Methamphetamine exposure was also associated with symptoms of agitation (5/47), vomiting (11/47) and tachypnea (12/47) when compared to the non-exposed group (p 0r 0.001).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Nausea
  • Other systemic effects include: shortness of breath, hyperthermia, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Q: How does meth affect the mouth and teeth? A: The oral effects of methamphetamine use can be overwhelming.[aaom.com]
  • […] energy spike increased physical activity increased blood pressure and breathing rate dangerously high body temperature loss of appetite sleeplessness paranoia unpredictable behavior performing repetitive, meaningless tasks dilated pupils heavy sweating nausea[addictioncampuses.com]
  • Negative effects can also include disturbed sleep patterns, hyperactivity, nausea, delusions of power, increased aggressiveness and irritability.[drugfreeworld.org]
  • Negative physical effects of MA use typically include hypertension, tachycardia, headaches, cardiac arrhythmia, and nausea; the psychological impact is manifested by increased anxiety, insomnia, aggressive and violent tendencies, paranoia, and visual[psychiatrictimes.com]
Blurred Vision
  • A 26-year-old woman had blurred vision and intraretinal hemorrhages shortly after using methamphetamine nasally.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fracture
  • Meth mouth refers to a pattern of oral signs and symptoms of methamphetamine abuse, thought to include rampant caries and tooth fracture, leading to multiple tooth loss and edentulism.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Group 1 had undergone a healing process of, on average, 6 months after small fractures with no complications during healing and with no persisting clinical symptoms.[bmcoralhealth.biomedcentral.com]
Muscle Twitch
  • These include : increased distractibility nausea dry mouth and bad breath dilated pupils tremors muscle twitching memory loss aggressive or violent behavior mood disturbances severe dental problems weight loss skin sores from intense itching rapid or[medicalnewstoday.com]
Osteopenia
  • The frequency of osteoporosis was 22% according to WHO diagnostic guidelines, and osteopenia at the lumbar spine was 76%. The correlation between the extent of methamphetamine abuse and BMD was very clear.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Self-Mutilation
  • Concomitant psychopathology is seen frequently, necessitating a thorough psychiatric assessment with attention to other acts of self-mutilation, suicide attempts, psychosis, or substance abuse.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Suicidal Ideation
  • RESULTS: Bupropion was well-tolerated except for one female in the bupropion group who was hospitalized for suicidal ideation during a methamphetamine relapse.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dysuria
  • Abstract Foreign bodies are inserted into the male urogenital tract for a variety of motives, and patients may present with symptoms of dysuria, urinary retention, hematuria, discharge, or priapism.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hematuria
  • Abstract Foreign bodies are inserted into the male urogenital tract for a variety of motives, and patients may present with symptoms of dysuria, urinary retention, hematuria, discharge, or priapism.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Slurred Speech
  • A healthy 31-year-old male abstinent from drug abuse during his recent incarceration developed slurred speech, a severe headache, and left-sided hemiparesis prior to his eventual death 9.5 hours after inhalation of methamphetamine.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • Infectious workup with blood cultures and CSF studies were all negative. She was started on a Sinemet trial with slight improvement in her symptoms. She was also treated with steroids which reduced radiographic appearance of cerebral edema.[n.neurology.org]
Candida
  • Keywords: Methamphetamine Abuse; Immunosuppression; Fournier’s Gangrene; Candida Published on: Nov 29, 2017 Pages: 69-71 Full Text PDF Full Text HTML DOI: 10.17352/ojt.000014 Get Citation Base Search Scilit OAI-PMH ResearchGate GrowKudos CrossMark[peertechz.com]
Fibrinoid Necrosis
  • Histopathologically, necrotizing angiitis characterized by fibrinoid necrosis of the intima and media was observed with cell infiltration.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Conventional treatments for drug addiction mainly seek to use small molecule agonists or antagonists to target the drug receptors in the brain, but unfortunately it is difficult to find a similar small molecule for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This analysis uses natural history interview data from 350 clients treated for MA use in Los Angeles County to examine clients' self-reported CJS/CPS pressure to enter treatment, comparing background and treatment characteristics and selected treatment[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Conventional treatment resulted in sobriety, employment, and fewer arrests at 6 and 12 months following treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment includes cessation of drug abuse, oral hygiene, restrictions on sugar intake, and daily fluoride supplementation. Such patients tend to exhibit poor compliance with treatment recommendations or fail to show for appointments.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESULTS: Smoking status did not affect treatment responsiveness in either the bupropion condition or the placebo condition.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • This is likely due to a combination of reasons, including ongoing substance abuse, poor functional status/prognosis, and/or issues with adherence, the researchers say.[medscape.com]
  • The prognosis is generally poor, with residual spastic paraparesis and sensory deficits, and in some patients, death may occur. Electrodiagnostic studies assist in localizing the lesions and provides a more accurate diagnosis (34,44).[apjmt.mums.ac.ir]

Etiology

  • On pathology, there was no evidence of inflammation or necrosis to suggest vasculitis as a possible etiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, since the worldwide prevalence of MA abuse is remarkably high, a relationship between MA abuse and ONJ will offer a new aspect in the etiology of ONJ and might present a further therapeutic challenge.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The rampant caries resemble radiation caries, early childhood caries or “pop rot” but lacks the associated etiology. Through elimination of other causative agents, a differential diagnosis of meth mouth can be made. Figure 6A. Damage caused by meth.[dentalcare.com]
  • The most common etiology of the infection is bacterial; however, there have been published cases of Fournier’s gangrene caused by yeast in patients with severe immunosuppression.[peertechz.com]
  • Using hair testing, drugs can be detected in hair for weeks to months, as opposed to 2-3 days with blood or urine testing. [14] Etiology/Causes There is not one known cause of methamphetamine abuse but it is thought that the following can lead someone[physio-pedia.com]

Epidemiology

  • After describing the pharmacology and systemic effects of methamphetamine and concentrating on its effects on the mouth, the present review compares the epidemiology and incidence of abuse in the world, particularly the USA and the EU.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Author information 1 a Graduate Assistant, Division of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health , University of Memphis , Memphis , TN , USA. 2 b Graduate Assistant, Division of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Environmental Health, School[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Firstly, this review article briefly discusses the epidemiology and clinical pharmacology of methamphetamine dependence.[mdpi.com]
  • Courtney KE, Ray LA: Methamphetamine: an update on epidemiology, pharmacology, clinical phenomenology, and treatment literature. Drug Alcohol Depend 2014; 143: 11–21. Rusyniak DE: Neurologic manifestations of chronic methamphetamine abuse.[karger.com]
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY Geographic spread In the late 1960s, MA became known as a dangerous drug, creating substantial health threats to persons who used it and prompting the drug prevention slogan "speed kills."[psychiatrictimes.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • The HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein is very often used in experimental studies trying to understand neurotoxic consequences of HIV-1 infection, since the pathophysiological changes induced by Tat mirrors, in part, the means by which[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The exact pathophysiological mechanism of vigabatrin-associated visual field defects remains unclear.[jamanetwork.com]
  • Vearrier D, Greenberg MI, Miller SN, Okaneku JT, Haggerty DA (2012) Methamphetamine: History, pathophysiology, adverse health effects, current trends and hazards associated with the clandestine manufacture of meth. Disease-a-Month.[drugabuse.imedpub.com]
  • Neurological complications of drug abuse: pathophysiological mechanisms. Eur J Neurol 2000 Nov;7(6):595-606. Enevoldson TP. Recreational drugs and their neurological consequences. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2004 Sep;75Suppl 3:iii9-15. Büttner A.[apjmt.mums.ac.ir]

Prevention

  • Community methamphetamine prevention can use the public health and safety perspective applied to other substance abuse prevention.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Moreover, recognition and proper referral to treatment should be a part of every provider's plan for preventing the devastating psychological, oral, and overall systemic effects of methamphetamine abuse.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • They should also be aware that these patients are often unreliable at following prevention advice as well as keeping follow-up appointments.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In some cases, blood vessels that feed the heart constrict, preventing the heart from receiving an adequate blood supply, leading to myocardial infarction.[physio-pedia.com]
  • Understanding how adolescents initiate methamphetamine abuse is important in developing effective prevention programs. We formulate a mathematical model for the spread of methamphetamine abuse using nonlinear ordinary differential equations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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