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Methyl Bromide Poisoning

Methyl Bromide or Methyl Chloride Poisoning


Presentation

  • In the present case, MeBr was detected, confirmed and quantitated in various biological samples by headspace gas chromatography, and the clinical manifestations and autopsy findings are described.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although plasma inorganic bromide concentration is known not to be directly correlated to the severity of organic bromide poisoning, its determination was, in the present case, particularly useful to confirm the diagnosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The data presented here suggest a different mechanism for methyl bromide neurotoxicity which could be related to the transformation of methylglutathione into toxic metabolites such as methanethiol and formaldehyde.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clinical presentation Acute irritant effects on the eyes, mucous membranes, and upper respiratory tract are attributed to the added lacrimator chloropicrin. (Lethal exposures can occur without warning if chloropicrin has not been added.)[mhmedical.com]
  • It seems obvious that there was gross negligence on the part of Terminix employees when using the pesticide indoors when people were present.[acsh.org]
Fatigue
  • Their symptoms included headache, fatigue, cough and shortness of breath, mild symptoms of methyl bromide exposure, according to the EPA.[digitaljournal.com]
  • Six others on the islands had mild symptoms of methyl bromide exposure -- headache, fatigue, cough and shortness of breath -- after the botched March fumigation of the Sirenusa resort.[cnn.com]
Agent Orange
  • Unique highlights include A summary of the reported psychiatric symptoms attributed to each chemical class (chemical weapons, pesticides, fumigants, metals, solvents, gases, PCBs, Agent Orange, and other miscellaneous chemicals) in tables for easy reference[books.google.com]
Anorexia
  • Corneal burns from irritation of the eyes, damage of the kidney’s filters, liver damage as well as headaches, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances, fluctuations in body temperature and malaise. If MB is ingested, it is extremely lethal.[acsh.org]
Respiratory Distress
  • The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the product reportedly used in the Virgin Islands residences, called Meth-O-Gas Q, warns of the following hazards: highly toxic; may be fatal if inhaled; contact can result in chemical burns; respiratory distress[nrdc.org]
Nausea
  • Initial toxicity may include malaise, visual disturbances, headache, nausea, vomiting, and tremor, which may advance to intractable seizures and coma. Death may be caused by fulminant respiratory failure with noncardiogenic pulmonary edema or ...[mhmedical.com]
  • Corneal burns from irritation of the eyes, damage of the kidney’s filters, liver damage as well as headaches, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances, fluctuations in body temperature and malaise. If MB is ingested, it is extremely lethal.[acsh.org]
  • The effects of Methyl Bromide may include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, tremor, slurred speech and irritation to eyes, respiratory system and skin. Exposure to it can be fatal if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through skin.[comcare.gov.au]
  • The symptoms are headache and nausea, then disturbance comparable to alcohol poisoning, followed by excitation, tremors and epileptic fits usually attached with paralysis of the limbs.[wgbis.ces.iisc.ernet.in]
Blurred Vision
  • Symptoms of poisoning can include slurred speech, blurred vision, and temporary blindness. More severe symptoms may include bleeding in the brain, heart, and spleen.[nbcnews.com]
Lacrimation
  • Methyl bromide gas lacks warning properties, so the lacrimator chloropicrin (2%) usually is added. However, chloropicrin has a different vapor pressure and may dissipate at a different rate, limiting its warning properties.[mhmedical.com]
Hyperpigmentation
  • Irritation of the skin can result in blistering, contact dermatitis or hyperpigmentation (darkening) of the skin when in contact with trapped gas in gloves, boots or clothing.[acsh.org]
Suggestibility
  • Measurements of CH3Br, carried out at the site within hours after the accident, suggest that exposure on the second day may have been in excess of 200 ppm (800 mg/m3) CH3Br. All workers were admitted for observation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The data presented here suggest a different mechanism for methyl bromide neurotoxicity which could be related to the transformation of methylglutathione into toxic metabolites such as methanethiol and formaldehyde.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • "They've suggested they're going to be a transport industry and in fact they're not." Hobsons Bay deputy mayor Tony Briffa said he strongly opposed Viking's permit application. "Methyl bromide has been banned across the European Union.[theage.com.au]
  • These findings suggest that the sensory system is involved chiefly. The symptom of Methylbromide poisoning had been briefly discussed.[webview.isho.jp]
  • McAllister suggested that other medications that Arturo Becerra was taking for pre-existing ailments might have caused his symptoms. For Ripon, resolution of the case comes as a relief.[articles.latimes.com]
Psychiatric Symptoms
  • Unique highlights include A summary of the reported psychiatric symptoms attributed to each chemical class (chemical weapons, pesticides, fumigants, metals, solvents, gases, PCBs, Agent Orange, and other miscellaneous chemicals) in tables for easy reference[books.google.com]
Hysteria
  • This work stands alone as the first on this topic to be written by a psychiatrist and the first to bring together the military, occupational, and environmental exposures causing psychiatric illness, including multiple chemical sensitivities, mass hysteria[books.google.com]
Headache
  • Initial toxicity may include malaise, visual disturbances, headache, nausea, vomiting, and tremor, which may advance to intractable seizures and coma. Death may be caused by fulminant respiratory failure with noncardiogenic pulmonary edema or ...[mhmedical.com]
  • Corneal burns from irritation of the eyes, damage of the kidney’s filters, liver damage as well as headaches, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances, fluctuations in body temperature and malaise. If MB is ingested, it is extremely lethal.[acsh.org]
  • EPA lists the acute hazard risks to include: lung inflammation (pulmonary edema) and impaired breathing; neurological effects including headaches, dizziness, fainting, weakness, speech impairment, numbness, twitching and tremors; in severe cases paralysis[nrdc.org]
  • Fumigants like these are applied in large quantities, vaporize easily, drift and expose nearby farmworkers and other community members to harm, with health effects linked to headaches, vomiting, severe lung irritation, and neurological effects.[beyondpesticides.org]
  • Exposure to high levels of methyl bromide can cause headaches, dizziness, fainting and even paralysis and death.[caribbeanbusiness.com]
Seizure
  • Initial toxicity may include malaise, visual disturbances, headache, nausea, vomiting, and tremor, which may advance to intractable seizures and coma. Death may be caused by fulminant respiratory failure with noncardiogenic pulmonary edema or ...[mhmedical.com]
  • Other systemic effects which may manifest 30 minutes to 48 hours post-exposure are mainly neurologic: seizures, myoclonus, tremors, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia (unstable gait), vertigo, respiratory paralysis, and cerebral edema.[acsh.org]
  • But on March 20, they began having seizures, Maron said in early April. The chemicals "bio-accumulated and metabolized until it became an acute poisoning." The family "began having seizures in the middle of the night and their lungs stopped working.[delawareonline.com]
  • The family began showing ill effects on Friday, when they began having seizures, Maron said. They were taken to island hospitals and airlifted back to America by Monday, Maron said.[usatoday.com]
  • His wife Theresa, who suffered seizures, has improved and is looking after their two sons who can barely move. "It's highly acutely toxic. At very low levels it has chronic effects," said Jay Feldman, executive director of Beyond Pesticides.[cbsnews.com]
Irritability
  • Skin irritation and absorption may occur, causing burns and systemic toxicity. Methyl bromide may penetrate clothing and some protective gear. Retained gas in clothing and rubber boots can be a source of prolonged dermal exposure.[mhmedical.com]
  • Irritation of the skin can result in blistering, contact dermatitis or hyperpigmentation (darkening) of the skin when in contact with trapped gas in gloves, boots or clothing.[acsh.org]
  • Methyl bromide's primary toxic effect is to interfere with the function of nerves , although it will also irritate the lungs , skin and eyes . There is no antidote or direct treatment for methyl bromide poisoning.[house.wikia.com]
  • Fumigants like these are applied in large quantities, vaporize easily, drift and expose nearby farmworkers and other community members to harm, with health effects linked to headaches, vomiting, severe lung irritation, and neurological effects.[beyondpesticides.org]
  • The effects of Methyl Bromide may include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, tremor, slurred speech and irritation to eyes, respiratory system and skin. Exposure to it can be fatal if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through skin.[comcare.gov.au]
Slurred Speech
  • Symptoms of poisoning can include slurred speech, blurred vision, and temporary blindness. More severe symptoms may include bleeding in the brain, heart, and spleen.[nbcnews.com]
  • The effects of Methyl Bromide may include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, tremor, slurred speech and irritation to eyes, respiratory system and skin. Exposure to it can be fatal if inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through skin.[comcare.gov.au]
Peripheral Neuropathy
  • Other systemic effects which may manifest 30 minutes to 48 hours post-exposure are mainly neurologic: seizures, myoclonus, tremors, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia (unstable gait), vertigo, respiratory paralysis, and cerebral edema.[acsh.org]

Treatment

  • The treatment was successful in removing bromide from the blood but the patient persists with severe neuropsychiatric sequelae. To the best of our knowledge haemodialysis has not been used previously for the treatment of organic bromide poisoning.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • If such metabolites are the ultimate toxic species, N-acetylcysteine treatment could have a toxifying rather than a detoxifying effect.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There is no antidote or direct treatment for methyl bromide poisoning. In most cases, the patient will recover over time given supportive care, such as fluids and oxygen as required.[house.wikia.com]
  • […] investigating what could be Sonoma County's most serious methyl bromide poisoning in 30 years, an apparent accident that caused four people, including the owners and winemaker at Healdsburg's Davis Bynum Winery, to become violently ill and require emergency treatment[getipm.com]
  • […] and after treatment.[fao.org]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis for recovery is at best, guarded Dr.[digitaljournal.com]
  • "I would say the prognosis, at best, is guarded," said Panettieri, who has not personally treated the family. "As we know the victims have been off ventilators and they've been improved.[cnn.com]

Epidemiology

  • APPLICATION OF DNA ADDUCTS AND HEMOGLOBIN ADDUCTS TO ENVIRONMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES.[researchmap.jp]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Based on range of successful pest prevention practices, use of these hazardous chemicals are unnecessary. See Beyond Pesticides’ executive director on CBS Evening News, August 2, on the subject.[beyondpesticides.org]
  • Concentrations during injection vary between 100 and 1,000 ppm with peaks up to 3,000 (10,000 in one case) ppm, but drop below 200 ppm if preventive measures are taken. During fumigation concentrations remain between 100 and 1,000 ppm.[link.springer.com]
  • Set up barricades and warning signs to prevent unauthorised access. 4. Open the container door taking care to avoid exposure. 5.[comcare.gov.au]
  • • Prevention of illness after contact: First, leave the area where the methyl bromide was released and move to fresh air. Remove clothing. Then, quickly take off clothing that may have methyl bromide on it.[illinoispoisoncenter.org]

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