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Microcytic Anemia

Iron-Refractory Iron Deficiency Anemia


Presentation

  • We describe the case of a 19-year-old Chinese woman with hyaline vascular type of unicentric CD presenting as severe non-iron deficiency microcytic anemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report the cases of 2 children with occult, unicentric Castleman disease whose primary presenting feature was a chronic, unexplained, iron-refractory, microcytic anemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The age presentation of anemia was 3 months. Further evaluations indicate severe hypochromic microcytic anemia with decreased serum levels of iron, TIBC, and increased serum level of ferritin in this patient.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The clinical presentation of anemia varies according to its severity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present study aimed to prospectively evaluate the reliability of these new formulas in the differential diagnosis of microcytosis and β-thalassemia screening compared with already published indices.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fatigue
  • Clinical presentation One of the difficulties in diagnosing anemia is that the patient does not typically exhibit many symptoms and those which are present are things like headache, fatigue, dizziness, tachycardia, orthostatic hypertension, and exertional[physicianassistantexamreview.com]
  • Mild degrees of anemia often cause only slight and vague symptoms, perhaps nothing more than easy fatigue or a lack of energy.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Persons with anemia may feel tired and fatigue … Medical dictionary Anemia — For other uses, see Anemia (disambiguation). Anemia Classification and external resources ICD 10 D50 D64 ICD 9 … Wikipedia anemia — /euh nee mee euh/, n. 1.[medicine.academic.ru]
  • Some common symptoms of this type are pale skin, dizziness, conjunctivitis, short breath during exercise, fatigue, urge to eat chalk or dirt and decreased stamina.[symptoms.in]
  • Hematological Findings: • tiredness, fatigue, and light headedness. These are all common symptoms of anemia. • All types of anemia including microcytic , macrocytic and normocytic manifest.[slideshare.net]
Veterinarian
  • Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia Note: Treatment of animals should only be performed by a licensed veterinarian. Veterinarians should consult the current literature and current pharmacological formularies before initiating any treatment protocol.[web.archive.org]
Skin Lesion
Loss of Pubic Hair
  • A 38-year-old male subject, previously having received radiotherapy for treatment of nasopharygeal carcinoma (NPCA) 16 years ago, appeared at OPD complaining about his failure in penile erection, loss of pubic hair, atrophy of external genitalia: testicles[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Urogenital Bleeding
  • Causes of Iron Deficiency Anemia Blood Loss - Blood sucking parasites (fleas, ticks, hookworms), bleeding intestinal neoplasms, 2 transitional cell carcinoma with urogenital bleeding, 5 gastrointestinal ulcers, thrombocytopenia, inherited hemostatic disorders[web.archive.org]
Headache
  • She denied weakness or clumsiness in upper extremities, headaches, vertigo, lightheadedness, or loss of consciousness. There was no history of fever, chills, autoimmune disorders, skin rash, joint pain or swellings, blood clots, or miscarriages.[neurology.org]
  • Clinical presentation One of the difficulties in diagnosing anemia is that the patient does not typically exhibit many symptoms and those which are present are things like headache, fatigue, dizziness, tachycardia, orthostatic hypertension, and exertional[physicianassistantexamreview.com]
  • Given below are some of the most commonly seen microcytic anemia symptoms: Weakness and fatigue Decrease in appetite, usually accompanied by weight loss Changes in the texture of nails, where they become fragile and break easily Severe headaches Difficulty[medicalhealthtests.com]
  • Burning shock sensations, aching in my joints, muscle weakness, numbness, headache/migraines, fatigue, and general malaise. I say PCP who took blood and everything came back normal. Had an MRI for MS, negative.[healthboards.com]
  • Hypochromic anemia was historically known as chlorosis or green sickness for the distinct skin tinge sometimes present in patients, in addition to more general symptoms such as a lack of energy, shortness of breath, dyspepsia, headaches, a capricious[en.wikipedia.org]
Generalized Seizure
  • Other variable clinical features include hypergammaglobulinemia, hepatosplenomegaly, generalized seizures, and basal ganglia calcification. None of the patients had diabetes mellitus or acanthosis nigricans.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • Consider therapeutic trial of iron supplementation without further workup ... FOLLOW-UP RECOMMENDATIONS Repeat laboratory evaluation can be done in 1 month.[5minuteconsult.com]
  • […] specificity for the diagnosis of iron deficiency; a serum ferritin concentration of 15 ng/mL has a sens of 59% and a spec of 99 % for iron deficiency Transferrin: ferritin index: 2 suggests IDA This is NOT a diagnosis by itself, it must include an appropriate workup[errolozdalga.com]
  • Depending on the clinical philosophy, whether the hospital's automated counter can immediately add it to the initial tests, and the clinicians' attitudes towards ordering tests, a reticulocyte count may be ordered either as part of the initial workup[newworldencyclopedia.org]
  • The doctor may also decide to take some other screening blood tests that might identify the cause of fatigue; glucose levels, ESR, ferritin, renal function tests and electrolytes may be part of such a workup.[copacabanarunners.net]
Free Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin
  • Hematocrit increase of 3 to 19 vol% was associated with correction of microcytosis, significant reduction in abnormal levels of free erythrocyte protoporphyrins, and amelioration of the bone-related symptoms and neurologic signs of aluminum intoxication[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hematocrit Increased
  • Hematocrit increase of 3 to 19 vol% was associated with correction of microcytosis, significant reduction in abnormal levels of free erythrocyte protoporphyrins, and amelioration of the bone-related symptoms and neurologic signs of aluminum intoxication[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • After treatment with intravenous iron dextran, there was an absence of the expected reticulocytosis and only a partial correction of the hemoglobin, hematocrit, and microcytosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Improvement of microcytic anemia after deferoxamine treatment is described in eight long-term dialysis patients with high serum aluminum concentration and other clinical signs of aluminum toxicity.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • As a consequence, radiation-induced irreversible, progressively chronic onset hypopituitarism (RIH) commonly develops after radiation treatments and can result in variably impaired pituitary function, which is frequently associated with increased morbidity[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Imaging tools and pathological studies should be considered in order to make a more accurate diagnosis and to avoid the use of ineffective treatments.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Management and treatment Anemia poorly responds to oral iron treatment. The documents contained in this web site are presented for information purposes only.[orpha.net]

Prognosis

  • For those responding to steroid therapy the prognosis is good.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Discussion Differentiation between thalassemic and nonthalassemic microcytosis has important clinical implications because each has an entirely different cause, pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment.[ajcp.oxfordjournals.org]
  • Anemia Prognosis How well someone with anemia will recover depends on the cause of the anemia and how severe it is.[emedicinehealth.com]

Etiology

  • A number of etiologic factors have been implicated, including decreased production of erythropoietin; decreased erythrocyte life span secondary to uremia and splenomegaly; increased bleeding tendency due to platelet dysfunction; and acquired lack of folic[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract A new expert system developed on a Macintosh personal computer using a commercially available artificial intelligence shell was compared with four different discriminant functions (DFs) for the differentiation of microcytic anemia into etiologic[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • December 2017 for Beta Thalassemia: Etiology and Pathogenesis helpful lec thumps up for me is better than the ophthalmo lecs by the same doc Hematology Anemia By Odette H. on 12.[lecturio.com]
  • ORPHA:83642 Synonym(s): - Prevalence: Inheritance: Autosomal recessive Age of onset: Infancy, Neonatal ICD-10: D50.8 OMIM: 206100 UMLS: C2673913 MeSH: - GARD: - MedDRA: - Summary Etiology This syndrome is due to mutations in DMT1 which codes for a transporter[orpha.net]
  • ORPHA:83642 Synonym(s): - Prevalence: Inheritance: Autosomal recessive Age of onset: Infancy , Neonatal ICD-10: D50.8 OMIM: 206100 UMLS: C2673913 MeSH: - GARD: - MedDRA: - Summary Etiology This syndrome is due to mutations in DMT1 which codes for a transporter[orpha.net]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology Congress: 66th Scientific Sessions (2006)[professional.diabetes.org]
  • Global epidemiology of hemoglobin disorders. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998 ; 850 : 251 – 269. 10.. Inherited haemoglobin disorders: an increasing global health problem. Bull World Health Organ. 2001 ; 79 : 704 – 712. 11..[ajcp.oxfordjournals.org]
  • […] age in developing countries. [ 2 ] The World Health Organization defines anaemia as: [ 1 ] Haemoglobin (Hb) Hb Hb Failure to investigate IDA appropriately in primary care can cause significant delay in final diagnosis, with associated morbidity. [ 3 ] Epidemiology[patient.info]
  • A pooled analysis of 12 epidemiologic studies. Environ Res. 1998, 79: 51-68.[bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • In general, a relatively limited set of pathophysiological processes yield microcytic anemias and thus measurement of the MCV can significantly narrow the possible differential diagnosis for a patient's anemia.[pathwaymedicine.org]
  • A discussion of the clinical presentation of IRIDA, the molecular genetics of this disorder, and recent studies elucidating the underlying pathophysiology are presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] microcytic anemia. ( 21637571 ) Wagner S.C....Hutz M.H. 2010 48 Stiff-person syndrome in a female patient with type 1 diabetes, dermatitis herpetiformis, celiac disease, microcytic anemia and copper deficiency Just a coincidence or an additional shared pathophysiological[malacards.org]
  • Anaemia is compensated by increasing cardiac output, redistributing blood from non-critical to critical circulations and increasing oxygen extraction (see Pathophysiology of anaemia ).[allaboutblood.com]
  • Pathophysiology: This disease is characterized by a microcytic hypochromic anemia, and an iron deposition in the heart and liver.[slideshare.net]

Prevention

  • We therefore believe that an early diagnosis prevents and minimizes the complications related to celiac disease, and that serologic screening should become routine in the diagnostic protocol for hypochromic microcytic anemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The best way to prevent microcytic anemia is to get enough iron in your diet. Increasing your vitamin C intake can also help your body absorb more iron. You can also consider taking a daily iron supplement.[healthline.com]
  • […] blood out of ferroportin channel Transferrin binds in blood, delivers to liver bone marrow macrophages for storage RBCs have sTfRs soluble transferrin receptors - "iron stuffers" Store bound to ferritin intracellularly Ferritin Haemosiderin Binding prevents[alancam.com]
  • Uncommitted heme or free iron will contribute to ubiquitination and degradation of IRP2 to prevent excessive iron uptake.[haematologica.org]

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