Mikulicz disease is characterized by the chronic and benign enlargement of the glandular structures situated in the head and neck, with the parotid, lacrimal and other salivary glands amongst the most commonly affected structures.
This condition, if primary, has been historically designated as Mikulicz disease. Although benign, this condition is almost always found along with certain other underlying diseases, such as tuberculosis, leukemia, syphilis, hodgkin's disease, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus or Sjogren's syndrome. The appropriate terminology for this condition then becomes Mikulicz syndrome . Such designations are now considered outdated and ambiguous. Some authors believe that Mikulicz disease, Mikulicz syndrome as well as Sjogren's syndrome all refer to the same condition- an autoimmune lymphocytic inflammation of the salivary and lacrimal glands due to a hyperactive immune response   .
Owing to the inflammatory processes occurring in the enlarged parotid and other salivary glands, Mikulicz disease patients are usually affected by xerostomia of a sudden onset that may present as dysphagia or dental problems. The enlargement of the lacrimal glands, on the other hand, may lead to a reduction or absence of tear secretion.
Painless swellings of the parotid and other salivary glands may be found in these patients. Other glands, such as the submaxillary and the buccal glands, may also be involved. Uveitis is another commonly seen clinical sign. This disease is usually long-lasting and recurring fevers may be observed in some patients  .
Mikulicz disease may also be known by a variety of names including Dacryosialoadenopathia, Mikulicz-Radecki syndrome, Mikulicz-Sjogren's syndrome. Several other conditions, having similar clinical manifestations, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Mikulicz disease.
Mumps, an acute viral disease of childhood was a leading cause of enlargement of the salivary glands before the advent of prophylactic mass vaccinations. Unlike Mikulicz disease, the inflammation of the glands is usually painful in mumps. The first symptoms may further include malaise, loss of appetite and a low-grade temperature that rises quickly within the first 24 hours.
Salivary gland duct obstruction due to stones may also be a cause for glandular enlargement and should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Other reasons for salivary gland swelling include malnutrition, chronic alcoholism, pregnancy and the use of certain medications such as iodine. Salivary gland tumors, both benign and malignant, should also be ruled out while making a diagnosis  .
- Muscle Rigidity
These drugs have the ability to prevent muscle spasms and were first developed to prevent muscle rigidity associated with seizures. Thus, patients who look up Klonopin are surprised to see that it was first approved for children with seizures. [dry.org]
He developed polyuria and polydipsia after initiation of steroid therapy. Plasma and urine osmolality were suggestive of central diabetes insipidus (Table I). His serum Anti-Diuretic Hormone (ADH) was not estimated. [journals.viamedica.pl]
Jaw & Teeth
- Dental Caries
Xerostomia Dental caries Early loss of teeth Dry & smooth oral mucosa Cracking & Fissuring at corner of mouth.Management Good oral hygiene. 10. Hyperplasia Cause- Hormonal MetabolicClinical features Site minor salivary glands of palate. [slideshare.net]
In addition to chronic dryness, the patients have troublesome intraoral soft tissue problems that include rampant dental caries and difficulty with dentures due to dryness. [dry.org]
- Lacrimal Gland Enlargement
Historically, bilateral parotid and lacrimal gland enlargement was characterized by the term Mikulicz's disease if the enlargement appeared apart from other diseases. [en.wikipedia.org]
Lacrimal gland enlargement, parotid gland enlargement, dry mouth and dry eyes are the classic signs. The exact cause of Mikulicz syndrome is not known. Some scientists believe that Mikulicz syndrome should be considered a form of Sjögren syndrome. [rarediseases.org]
Lacrimal gland enlargement was observed in 8 cases. Other lesions included orbital pseudotumor in 5, pituitary enlargement in 5, and cranial nerve enlargement in 7; the infraorbital nerve was involved in 4. [ajnr.org]
Role of Th2 cells in IgG4-related lacrimal gland enlargement. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2010;152(Suppl. 1):47-53. Yamada K, Kawano M, Inoue R et al. [eyewiki.aao.org]
- Absent Lacrimation
A dictionary of medical eponyms Related people Henrik Samuel Conrad Sjögren Jan Mikulicz-Radecki Benign and chronic dacryoadenitis with bilateral painless swelling of lacrimal and salivary glands and decreased or absent lacrimation. [whonamedit.com]
Face, Head & Neck
Biopsy may be required to establish the reason for the enlargement of these glands. Histological findings in Mikulicz disease include lymphocytic infiltration in the salivary and lacrimal glands. Autoantibodies, such as anti-Ro, anti-La, antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and rheumatoid factor may also be detected in the serum.
Dry eye may be objectively diagnosed by certain tear flow dynamic tests, including the schirmer test, cotton thread test, clearance test or the tear break-up time test. Changes in the ocular surface may be detected via staining with the rose bengal or fluorescein stains  .
- Antinuclear Autoantibodies
The following factors having a possible association with the presence or absence of MD were investigated: sex; serum IgG and IgG4 levels; the presence or absence of antinuclear autoantibodies, jaundice, diabetes mellitus, swollen duodenal papilla, diffuse [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
A critical evaluation of enzyme immunoassays for detection of antinuclear autoantibodies of defined specificities. I. Precision, sensitivity, and specificity. Arthritis Rheum 42:455. 23. Vivino, F. B., I. Gala, and G. A. Hermann. 2002. [dry.org]
In hyper-IL6 syndromes, the levels of IgG, IgA, IgM, and CRP are mostly elevated, and thrombocytosis, anemia, hypoalbuminemia and hypocholestrolemia are observed due to the effects of the high IL-6 levels. [synapse.koreamed.org]
(a) Serum concentrations of both IgG1 and IgG4 from patients with MD decreased after treatment. [doi.org]
MD sometimes mimics intraorbital tumors such as malignant lymphoma but responds well to corticosteroid treatment. Thus it is important to recognize the clinical and radiographic features of MD. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
As for the treatment of IgG4-RD, oral prednisolone is considered the primary treatment in the presence of symptomatic disease with organ involvement [ 13 ]. [synapse.koreamed.org]
Prognosis is usually good; rarely this condition may devolve into lymphoma, or could actually represent 'occult' lymphoma from the outset. [en.wikipedia.org]
Controversial points regarding Mikulicz's disease Prognosis and relationship with lymphoproliferative diseases The long-term prognosis of MD is unknown. [link.springer.com]
[…] with Masson trichrome (bottom left) Images on the right show slices with immunohistochemical markers 100 revealing numerous mature lymphocytes, CD20, CD4 and IgG4 producing plasma cells. a r c h s o c e s p o f t a l m o l. 2 0 1 4;8 9(8):332–335 335 Prognosis [kundoc.com]
What is the prognosis of IgG4-related disease? Prognosis of IgG4-related disease is variable. It may spontaneously resolve or persist, with remitting and relapsing symptoms. [dermnetnz.org]
Smoking habits and a history of systemic disease also have been associated with poor prognosis of the disease.  To date, malignant transformation of Kimura disease has not been described in the literature. Kimm HT, Szeto C. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Schaffer and Jacobsen in 1927 reviewed the subject comprehensively and offered an etiologic classification. Sjögren's syndrome is entered as a separate entity under Henrik Samuel Conrad Sjögren, Swedish ophthalmologist, 1899-1986. [whonamedit.com]
Sudesh Kumar KEYWORDS: Kimura’s Disease, Eosinophilia, Neck Swelling JOURNAL NAME: International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, Vol.3 No.4, July 11, 2014 ABSTRACT: Kimura’s disease (KD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder with unknown etiology [scirp.org]
It has also been suggested that dacryoadenitis from EBV responds well to systemic steroids. 21 Inflammatory etiologies should be managed based on the specific treatment for the etiology. [reviewofophthalmology.com]
Although the etiology and mechanism of AIP are still unknown, overproduction of Th2 and regulatory cytokines may play an important role [ 11, 12 ]. [basicmedicalkey.com]
The theories of etiology are diverse. Many authors are convinced that sialoliths or scarring of the ducts cause stasis of salivary flow and predispose the gland to infection is the etiology, but this is probably true for only a minority of cases. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Immunosurveillance and cancer: epidemiological evidence. Br Med J. 1970 Nov 14; 4 (5732):420–422. [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ] GODWIN JT. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Epidemiology Frequency United States Kimura disease has rarely been reported in the United States. International The exact prevalence of Kimura disease is not known. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Epidemiology in the pediatric population is also unknown, as there are few reported cases among children. [eyewiki.aao.org]
To report the clinical and pathophysiologic features of two patients with Mikulicz's disease and to further characterize recommendations for diagnosis and management with a review of the literature. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Kimura disease may represent a primary inflammatory process with secondary vascular proliferation. [5, 6] Reports have described both diseases presenting simultaneously.  Pathophysiology The pathophysiology of Kimura disease remains unknown. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Conflicting reports have implicated Th1 cells and Th2 cells in disease pathophysiology . Within the organs, increased CD4-positive T cells lead to activation of innate immune cells, which secrete cytokines and interleukins. [journals.viamedica.pl]
Pathophysiology The etiology and pathogenesis of IgG4-ROD is currently unknown. Generally, pathogenesis is thought to revolve around humoral and cell-mediated immunity. [eyewiki.aao.org]
Thus, IgG4 is supposed to prevent large immune complex formation and shows inhibitory effect against allergic reactions. [e-ijd.org]
Also, therapies are directed at improving symptoms, preventing the complications (such as dental caries, oral candida, or corneal damage) and preventing disease progression. A. [dry.org]
Sánchez Fontán, Chairman of the Board of the Association to Prevent Blindness in Mexico I. A.P.-Hospital Dr. Luis Sánchez Bulnes. Thanks for all the opportunities offered to us year after year. Fig. 6 – Clinical picture of patient outcome. [kundoc.com]
The spectrum varies from mild and infrequent attacks to episodes so frequent that they prevent regular school attendance. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Xerostomia Dryness of mouth.Etiology Radiation induced Drug induced NutritionalClinical features Increase thirst Dry leathery tongue Difficulty in speech, swallowing & eating dry food Burning sensation Blurred vision Fissuring of tongue.Management Preventive [slideshare.net]
- Ihrler S, Harrison J. Mikulicz's disease and Mikulicz's syndrome: analysis of the original case report of 1892 in the light of current knowledge identifies a MALT lymphoma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2005;100(3):334-9.
- Yousem D, Kraut M, Chalian A. Major salivary gland imaging. Radiology. 2000;216(1):19-29.
- Morgan W, Castleman B. A clinicopathologic study of “Mikulicz’s Disease. Am J Pathol. 1953;29:471-503.
- Morgan W. The probable systemic nature of Mikulicz’s disease and its relation to Sjögren’s syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1954;251:5-10.
- Lemp M. Report of the National Eye Institute/industry workshop on clinical trials in dry eyes. CLAO J. 1995;21:221-232.
- Fox R, Robinson C, Curd J, Kozin F, Howell F. Sjögren’s syndrome: proposed criteria for classification. Arthritis Rheum. 1986;29:577-583.
- Mikulicz J. Ueber eine eigenartige symmetrische Erkrankung der Tranen und Mundspeicheldrusen (Concerning a peculiar symmetrical disease of the lacrimal and salivary glands). Medical Classics. 1937;2:165-186.
- Miracco C, Schurfeld K, Cardone C, et al. Benign lymphoepithelial lesion associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: an immunohistochemical and molecular genetic study. J Cutan Pathol. 2002;29:33-37.
- Toda I, Shimazaki J, Tsubota K. Dry eye with only decreased break-up time is sometimes associated with allergic conjunctivitis. Ophthalmology. 1995;102:302-309.
- Tsubota K, Fujita H, Tsuzaka K, al. e. Mikulicz’s disease and Sjögren’s syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis ScI. 2000;41:1666-73.