Mild cognitive impairment is defined as an intermediate state between normal cognitive function and dementia. In addition to neurodegenerative diseases, vascular insults, trauma, and drugs can induce this condition. Mild cognitive decline reported by patients themselves or during history taking is the principal diagnostic criteria. Patients are distinguished from those suffering from dementia by their ability to live independently and perform daily activities without assistance or with minor assistance.
The diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have undergone several revisions in recent years but this clinical entity is generally known as an intermediate state between normal cognitive impairment and dementia  . More specifically, MCI is suspected if the cognitive decline is acquired unexpectedly sooner in terms of age or educational background, but without the impairment of activities of daily living  . Patients can experience a decline in one of the five cognitive domains: language; executive functioning; psychomotor skills; learning and memory; or visuospatial abilities  . The distinction between dementia and MCI lies in the fact that the majority of patients suffering from MCI have only one (or sometimes more than one) cognitive deficits, e.g. memory complaints, whereas dementia is usually characterized by multiple cognitive deficits . Furthermore, MCI is distinguished by the preservation of functional independence and activities of daily living, although time to complete more complex tasks, such as cooking, shopping or paying bills may be increased and is often noted by patients themselves . The objectivity and self-awareness of patients about their cognitive decline are also the key criteria for MCI   . This disorder most frequently arises in the setting of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia (Parkinson's disease, and less commonly frontotemporal degeneration), which is why the lifetime risk for full-blown dementia is substantially increased in this patient population  . However, cerebrovascular diseases, traumatic brain injury, depression and multiple comorbidities have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of MCI  . In any case, prompt recognition is mandatory in order to ensure the best possible outcome.
PURPOSE: To compare the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) as well as the macula volume and thickness in the eyes of age-matched healthy controls with no cognitive disabilities with those of elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Neurologic involvement is well recognized in Systemic Scleroderma and increasingly reported in Localized Scleroderma. MRI brain abnormalities are often associated with symptoms such as seizures or headaches. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
KEYWORDS: Alzheimer’s disease; Amnestic; Hyposmia; Mild cognitive impairment; Non-amnestic; Subjective memory impairment [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
They had symptoms of apathy, disinhibition, irritability and aggressiveness, untidiness, difficulties in decision making, obsessions and lack of concern for the others, for 1.5 /- 0.8 years before the diagnosis of FT-MCI. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
If you have MCI, you may also experience: Depression Irritability and aggression Anxiety Apathy Learn more about MCI at the Orange County Vital Brain Aging Program website. [hoag.org]
Emotional signs of MCI Irritability and aggression Depression Anxiety Apathy Read on to find out the treatments and diagnosis for mild cognitive impairment. Ref: P16 [healthxchange.sg]
[…] thoughts and thinking logically, repetitive statements or movements, occasional muscle twitches, restlessness, agitation, anxiety, tearfulness, wandering (especially in late afternoon or at night), hallucinations, delusions, suspiciousness, paranoia, irritability [med.unc.edu]
They may become more irritable than usual, and lose their way even in a familiar environment. [clinical-partners.co.uk]
Besides, the level of adiponectin in serum of T2DM patients is correlated with the development of MCI; elderly T2DM patients are afflicted by cognitive impairment, mainly in visuospatial and executive abilities, attention, language, delayed recall and [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
In addition, the present results underscore the importance of motor dysfunction even in neurodegenerative disorders without primary motor symptoms. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
A meticulous patient history is the most important step in the workup for diagnosing MCI. During the interview, patients should be asked about their daily routine and whether certain activities have become more complex for them to perform. A heterogeneous anamnesis (with either family members or close friends) may provide useful clues, but the hallmark of MCI is self-reported cognitive decline, which can only be revealed during history taking and a full cognitive examination  . It must be kept in mind that many drugs also induce cognitive impairment, which is why a recent history of drug use should be investigated . To confirm MCI, several inventories can be used, one example being the 10-item functional activities questionnaire, which establishes if patients had difficulties with activities of various complexity (remembering appointments, driving, traveling, sorting out bills, cooking, etc.)  . In addition, the mental status needs to be evaluated, either by using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) or the Short Test of Mental Status (STMS), which seems to be superior compared to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), one of the most widely implemented cognitive assessments  . A complete neurological exam is an integral part of the workup in all patients in whom MCI and other neurological disorders are suspected, especially if other etiologies (e.g. cerebrovascular disease) are the cause of the symptoms. Also for this reason, imaging studies - computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are mandatory during the workup.
The treatment response was related to baseline homocysteine levels: the rate of atrophy in participants with homocysteine 13 µmol/L was 53% lower in the active treatment group (P 0.001). [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Regular use of aspirin showed a tendency to interact with treatment ( P treatment 0.021; P aspirin 0.19; P interaction 0.052); in those taking aspirin the treatment appeared less effective. [doi.org]
Trials in which the allocation to treatment or control was not randomized, or in which treatment allocation was not concealed, were excluded. [dx.doi.org]
This result was, however, marked by a high degree of uncertainty, and empirical research is required into the impact of a prognosis on worrying, false-positive/negative prognosis, and stigmatization. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Recommendation For patients diagnosed with MCI, clinicians should discuss diagnosis and uncertainties regarding prognosis. [doi.org]
The etiology of mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia can often be established through the clinical examination, although imaging and other laboratory tests may also contribute. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Epidemiologic studies of selenium are lacking, however, with the exception of a recent randomized trial based on an organic selenium form. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Methods: Retroactive application of MCI criteria to data collected during a prospective epidemiologic study was performed. [n.neurology.org]
Roberts, MB ChB, MS, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Tel.: 1 507 538 0487; Fax: 1 507 284 1516; E-mail: [email protected] [doi.org]
The new criteria emphasise that the AD pathophysiological process starts years and perhaps decades before clinical symptoms, and that biomarkers can detect amyloid β deposition and the effects of neurodegeneration in the brain. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Hoozemans, Physiological and pathophysiological functions of cell cycle proteins in post-mitotic neurons: implications for Alzheimer’s disease, Acta Neuropathologica, 10.1007/s00401-015-1382-7, 129, 4, (511-525), (2015). Giovana S. [doi.org]
The pathophysiology of MCI is multifactorial. [emedicine.medscape.com]
More focus on a precision nutrition approach is required to realize the full potential of vitamin therapy in preventing dementia and to avoid causing harm. 2017 American Society for Nutrition. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Key Messages Most interventions showed no evidence of benefit to delay or prevent age-related cognitive decline, MCI, and/or CATD. [effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov]
Intellectual stimulation may prevent cognitive decline. Studies have shown that computer use, playing games, reading books and other intellectual activities may help preserve function and prevent cognitive decline. [mayoclinic.org]
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