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Mixed Infection


Presentation

  • And 5 weeks after the completion of treatment, he presented with fever and diagnosed as P. ovale infection. P. ovale infection is a rare cause of malaria and often shows delayed presentation due to its dormant liver stage as hypnozoites.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The possible effects of an infection of this type in a compromised patient are also presented.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Post-neurosurgical type of ABM was presented in 86% of the mixed infection group. Brain abscess was found in three patients. Fourteen patients survived and seven cases died.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present study was undertaken to evalute the characteristics of severe malaria patients in Bikaner, northwest India.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The patient was a 3 year-old malnourished orphan who presented with fever, abdominal distension and relapsing diarrhea.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fever
  • In August 2016, a 25-year-old returned traveller from Cameroon and Democratic Republic of Congo presented with fever. He was diagnosed as P. falciparum malaria and successfully treated with artesunate.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Available from: Enteric fever is endemic in India. A large number of cases are seen between June and October each year. Among the enteric fevers, typhoid fever is more common than paratyphoid fever.[ijmm.org]
  • The patient was a 3 year-old malnourished orphan who presented with fever, abdominal distension and relapsing diarrhea.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 40-year-old man was admitted to hospital with a 5 day history of fever, restlessness and altered sensorium.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Symptoms include fever, productive/non-productive cough and pleuritic chest pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pseudotumor
  • Spindle cell pseudotumors may occur due to mycobacterial infection, especially in immunocompromised hosts including those with AIDS.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pleural Effusion
  • One had lobar pneumonia with pleural effusion and the other had necrotizing pneumonia requiring surgical intervention. None of the patients died.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Abdominal Distension
  • The patient was a 3 year-old malnourished orphan who presented with fever, abdominal distension and relapsing diarrhea.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Truncal Ataxia
  • We describe a man with AIDS who presented with right hemiparesis and truncal ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed enhancing nodular lesions at the cerebral peduncle and medulla.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

Entamoeba Histolytica
  • Eggs of C. sinensis and trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica were observed in the stool. Treatment with praziquantel followed by metronidazole and tinidazole reduced abnormalities in the liver and eosinophilia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Mycobacterium Avium Complex
  • They have been reported from many body sites; the lymph nodes are predominantly involved, most frequently associated with Mycobacterium avium complex infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Trypanosoma Cruzi
  • Abstract The Trypanosoma cruzi taxon is composed of 2 major lineages, T cruzi I and T cruzi II.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Actinomyces Israelii
  • A representative case in which a polymicrobial infection involving Fusobacterium nucleatum, Actinomyces israelii and Aggregatibacter (formerly Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans was initially diagnosed as malignancy in an edentulous patient.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Legionella Pneumophila
  • KEYWORDS: Legionella pneumophila; Mixed infection; Outbreak; PCR products; Sequence-based typing; Uncultured samples[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pleural Effusion
  • One had lobar pneumonia with pleural effusion and the other had necrotizing pneumonia requiring surgical intervention. None of the patients died.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • KEYWORDS: Cure rates; Mixed infections; Praziquantel; Schistosoma haematobium; Schistosoma mansoni; Senegal River Basin; Transmission dynamics; Treatment[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Furthermore, as the patient did not receive proper treatment for P. falciparum and hospitalization occurred soon after drug treatment, it seems that P. falciparum pathology was modulated by the concurrent presence of P. vivax.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In addition, the incidence rate of mixed infection before treatment with anti-TB medication was as high as that in patients with a history of anti-TB treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These findings have therefore important implications for correct interpretation and evaluation of molecular epidemiology data and in treatment evaluations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Mixed infections with different Leishmania strains may explain the differences in the clinical course of leishmaniasis in many patients and may be the reason for treatment failures.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Severe vivax or falciparum malaria had almost similar features and prognosis including mortality.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prognosis The overall prognosis is poorer in patients with renal disease, liver failure, lymphoproliferative disease and malignancies. The documents contained in this web site are presented for information purposes only.[orpha.net]
  • Patients were classified with the Peritonitis Index Altona-II (PIA-II) score for severity of disease, underlying conditions, prognosis and type of infection.[link.springer.com]

Etiology

  • A nonenveloped, single-stranded, and circular DNA virus designated TT virus (TTV) has been reported in association with hepatitis of unknown etiology.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Our investigation underscores the importance of early surveillance and comprehensive etiologic identification of mixed point-source outbreaks and the need for reliable standards of monitoring oysters to prevent and control calicivirus food-borne outbreaks[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract The etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a children's hospital was studied among 209 previously healthy children treated from August 1, 2001 to July 31, 2002.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Etiology The etiopathogenesis of MC is not completely understood. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been suggested to play a causative role, with the contribution of genetic and/or environmental factors.[orpha.net]

Epidemiology

  • Molecular epidemiological investigation showed possible multiple route transmission in the field. The clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of the mixed point-source calicivirus outbreak also conformed to Kaplan's criteria.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These findings have therefore important implications for correct interpretation and evaluation of molecular epidemiology data and in treatment evaluations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Here, we illustrated the epidemiological risk factors, clinical manifestations and outcomes of the patient.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVE: Recent studies using molecular epidemiological techniques have demonstrated mixed infection with multiple strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis especially in countries with high tuberculosis (TB) burden.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This finding has epidemiological relevance related to the association of T cruzi II with the clinical manifestations of Chagas disease and its frequency in Colombia and countries in northern South America. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Streptococcal Species is increasingly recognized as a potentially preventable emerging infection in human's brain with high prevalence around the world. Streptococcus constellatus is one of the most common pathogens.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Our investigation underscores the importance of early surveillance and comprehensive etiologic identification of mixed point-source outbreaks and the need for reliable standards of monitoring oysters to prevent and control calicivirus food-borne outbreaks[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Therefore, real time PCR-based species diagnosis should be applied for clinical diagnosis and quality control purposes in order to prevent the advent of drug resistant strains due to misdiagnosis and mistreatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Through the combined therapy, the multiplication of pathogenic yeasts is efficiently prevented with the use of antibiotics against bacteria.[normamed.com]
  • Therefore, it prevents the development of severe malaria[ 7 ].[malariajournal.biomedcentral.com]

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