Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection that is endemic in some areas of Latin America, the Middle East, North Africa, and the Mediterranean. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the three main clinical types of the disease. Biopsy of the lesion or a swab should be obtained for microbiological testing in order to confirm the diagnosis.
With approximately 1.3 million infections and more than 50,000 deaths every year, leishmaniasis is an important infectious disease that has an endemic status in the majority of Latin America, countries of the Mediterranean basin, the Middle East, and certain areas of Africa and Asia      . The protozoan parasite Leishmania, the causative agent of leishmaniasis, is transmitted to the human host by the sand fly vector from a number of animal hosts (or other human hosts that are already infected, in which case the term anthroponotic leishmaniasis is used)  . Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the three clinical forms (in addition to visceral and cutaneous) of this parasitic infection, distinguished by the onset of lesions on the skin and on mucous membranes as well      . Certain Leishmania species (L. braziliensis, L. major, L. panamensis, L. guyanensis, L. infantum, and L. donovani) are known for their propensity to produce mucocutaneous forms that start with the development of an erythematous papule at the site of the sand fly bite  . The face and the extremities are usually the locations of the initial lesion, which can appear weeks or even years after the bite  . Over time, the papule increases in size and eventually breaks, leading to the formation of a painless, well-demarcated ulcer  . Spontaneous resolution within a few months is seen in the majority of cases, but new lesions might appear at various sites on the body  . The distinguishing feature of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is the mucosal involvement, predominantly in the oral cavity and the nasopharynx  .
- Generalized Lymphadenopathy
Exfoliative dermatitis, nodular dermatitis, ulcerative dermatitis generalized particularly involving extremities. [leishmaniasis.info]
Other manifestations may include generalized lymphadenopathy; hyperpigmented skin of the forehead, abdomen, hands, and feet in light-skinned persons; skin lesions in dark-skinned persons; signs of bleeding (petechiae, epistaxis, bleeding gums); jaundice [wynman.com]
Entire Body System
The main side effects were headache and fever (7 cases), together with leucopenia and eosinophilia (4 cases). [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[Dunglison1855] The Low Fever Typhus Mitior in Latin. [Hooper1822] Low Continued Fever Typhoid Fever, Febricula, Little Fever. [Symptom, Nature, etc. of the Febricula or Little Fever, Manningham, 1746]. [antiquusmorbus.com]
Rickettsia Rickettsii and Other Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae (Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Other Spotted Fevers) 188. Rickettsia Akari (Rickettsialpox) 189. Coxiella Burnetii (Q Fever) 190. [euro-libris.ro]
Symptoms include fever (often 2 fever spikes per day), enlargement of the spleen and liver, weakness, and progressive emaciation. The disease is often fatal without treatment, but survivors often develop immunity. [msu.edu]
It is characterized by irregular bouts of fever, substantial weight loss, swelling of the spleen and liver, and anaemia. [the-travel-doctor.com]
- Nasal Ulcer
A 55-year-old man presented with a nasal ulcer of four years' duration. He had been treated for borderline lepromatous (BL) leprosy 25 years earlier. Differential diagnoses of MCL, lupus vulgaris, and subcutaneous mycosis were considered. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
- Nasal Congestion
A 35-year-old man with nasal congestion, swelling, and pain. N Engl J Med 2005;352:609-15. 3. Vera LA, Macedo JL, Ciuffo IA, Santos CG, Santos JB. [ijdvl.com]
- Skin Lesion
The helper/suppressor (H/S) ratio in the skin lesions was 1.6 +/- 0.5 and in the nasal lesions of mucosal leishmaniasis was 1.7 +/- 0.8. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Leishmaniasis Recidivans This term is used to define the recurrence of a skin lesion years after the initial lesion healed. [rarediseases.org]
Sometimes lymphadenopathy is noticed, before skin lesions develop. Back To Top Ulcerative skin lesion, with a raised outer border, on a Guatemalan patient who has cutaneous leishmaniasis. (Credit: MERTU, Guatemala; courtesy of B. [cdc.gov]
- Skin Disease
Mucocutaneous disease is due to extension of local skin disease into the mucosal tissue via direct extension, bloodstream or lymphatics. Lesions interest mainly the oral and nasal mucosa and occasionally the laryngeal and pharyngeal mucosa. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis is a mostly self-limiting skin disease in adults, but depending on the species, infected infants and children can develop the visceral form of the disease. [iamat.org]
On DermNet NZ Bugs Arthopod bites and stings Tropical skin diseases Other websites Leishmaniasis – pathology Leishmaniasis – Medline Plus Leishmaniasis – World Health Organization (WHO) Leishmaniasis – Medscape Reference Books about skin diseases See [dermnetnz.org]
Leishmania infection can cause skin disease (called cutaneous leishmaniasis). [the-travel-doctor.com]
[CancerWEB] Lepra The term lepra was formerly given to various skin diseases, the leprosy of modern authors being Lepra Arabum. [antiquusmorbus.com]
- Skin Ulcer
Characteristics of both the human host and the parasite species influence the clinical disease manifestations that range from asymptomatic exposure, to self-healing skin ulcers, to life-threatening widespread destructive ulcerations. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
scaly skin, gray, dark, ashen hair, thinning Cutaneous leishmaniasis Symptoms on the skin include: macule or papule, erythematous skin ulcer, forms at site of original lesion ulcer heals very slowly over a matter of months smaller lesions may form around [the-travel-doctor.com]
Cutaneous leishmaniasis Cutaneous ulcers will often heal without treatment. However, treatment can speed healing, reduce scarring, and decrease risk of further disease. Any skin ulcers that cause disfigurement may require plastic surgery. [healthline.com]
cutaneous is characterized by development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. [fpnotebook.com]
- Cutaneous Manifestation
Yet the infrequency of mucocutaneous disease compared with cutaneous manifestations, and the difficulty of isolating parasites from mucocutaneous lesions have restricted the study of the organisms involved. [ajtmh.org]
Therefore, these lesions can be confused with those found in Wegener's granulomatosis (which is also marked by cutaneous manifestations and can involve the nasal mucosa), leprosy, and tuberculosis. (9) Cultures and recombinant immunoenzymatic testing [the-medical-dictionary.com]
Leishmania causes a spectrum of inflammatory cutaneous disease manifestations. [mdpi.com]
The disease can be subacute, acute, or chronic, and can manifest in patients who are immunocompromised years after they have left endemic regions. [emedicine.medscape.com]
Clinical manifestations Clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis offer a wide spectrum of lesions, from a few small non‐ulcerated nodules observed in people in Central America due to L. [cochranelibrary.com]
- Tropical Ulcer
Differential Diagnosis: Numerous primary and secondary skin diseases/conditions such as other tropical ulcers, impetigo, infected insect bites, leprosy, lupus vulgaris, tertiary syphilis, yaws, blastomycosis, skin cancer, and others. [wynman.com]
A thorough clinical approach is necessary in order to make the diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. A meticulously obtained patient history should be the first step, during which the physician must bear in mind the country of residence and travel to endemic areas in the past several years, whereas a history of sand fly bites might be assessed as well. A properly conducted physical examination, with an emphasis on the inspection of the skin and the oral cavity, may be even more important for identifying the lesions seen in mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. To solidify clinical suspicion, however, several microbiological tests can be employed. Scrapings from the lesions are used for microscopic smear examination or cultivation, the former being a superior method due to the longer turnaround time of cultures (up to 10 days are necessary for Leishmania to grow on standard media)  . A histological examination of a biopsy sample (using hematoxylin-eosin staining) can be carried out, but the introduction of serological and molecular studies have greatly improved the overall rate of diagnosis  . The Montenegro's test, comprised of inoculating Leishmania antigen into the forearm, can yield conclusive results after 72 hours   . Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), although being expensive and more sophisticated compared to the previously mentioned methods, should be implemented whenever possible, primarily because of its very high sensitivity/specificity rates   .
CONCLUSION: Prolonged and high-dose treatment regimens with itraconazole are not effective for the treatment of the majority of patients with MCL. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
CONCLUSION: A classification or staging system enhances the ability to evaluate patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and determine more accurately their prognosis and treatment. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Restorative surgery may be required for severe cases The prognosis depends upon the promptness in providing appropriate treatment. [dovemed.com]
Clinical observations, with special reference to factors influencing prognosis, Rev. Infect. [books.google.de]
Midline destructive lesions have multiple possible etiologies, which can be grouped into neoplastic, infectious, or vasculitis-associated. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Individually and collectively, the identifying criteria implicate at least two L. braziliensis subspecies as etiologic agents of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia and suggest that a spectrum of intrinsically distinguishable organisms may be involved [ajtmh.org]
S., Kuo, C., Berger, K., Shuster, JR, Overby, LR, Bradley, DW, and Houghton, M., An assay for circulating antibodies to a major etiologic virus of human non-A, non-B hepatitis, Science, 244, 362, 1989. [books.google.de]
[…] may appear on the tongue, buccal or nasal mucosa, and pharynx; many variants of the disease exist, marked by differences in distribution, vector, epidemiology, and pathology, which suggest that it may in fact be caused by a number of closely related etiologic [medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Jump to: navigation, search Leishmaniasis Microchapters Home Patient Information Overview Historical Perspective Classification Pathophysiology Causes Differentiating Leishmaniasis from other Diseases Epidemiology and Demographics Risk Factors Natural [wikidoc.org]
________________________________________ Pathophysiology • The parasite occurs in the amastigote form in the vertebrate host and in the promastigote form in the sandfly vector and on culture. • The promastigotes inoculated by the sandfly vector enter [leishmaniasis.info]
Pathophysiology Modes of transmission In leishmaniasis, the obligatory intracellular protozoa are transmitted to mammals via the bite of the tiny 2- to 3-mm female sandfly of the genus Phlebotomus in the Old World (Eastern Hemisphere) and Lutzomyia in [emedicine.medscape.com]
The etiology and pathophysiology of post-kala azar dermal leishmaniasis are not elucidated. [antimicrobe.org]
How can Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis be Prevented? Currently, no vaccination has been discovered to prevent Leishmaniasis. Research is being undertaken to develop a vaccine at the earliest. [dovemed.com]
Research on the immune response has been interesting, and vaccine prevention and treatment are objects of current interest. American leishmaniasis may not always remain a sylvan disease, and urban adaptation is a distressing possibility. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
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- Alvar J, Vélez ID, Bern C, et al. Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence. PLoS One. 2012;7:e35671.
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- Diniz JL, Costa MO, Gonçalves DU. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis: clinical markers in presumptive diagnosis. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2011;77(3):380-384.
- Lemrani M, Hamdi S, Laamrani A, Hassar M. PCR detection of Leishmania in skin biopsies. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2009;3(2):115-122.