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Mucosal Melanoma


Presentation

  • Pigmented nevus present a one in a million chance of transforming into a malignant melanoma.[disabled-world.com]
  • • From 1972 to 1988, 15 patients presented to the Duke University Melanoma Clinic, Durham, NC, with malignant melanoma of the mucus membranes of the upper aerodigestive tract.[jamanetwork.com]
  • Those lesions involving the oral cavity usually present as a painless mass with ulceration/bleeding. Involvement of the genital/urinary tracts may present with abnormal discharge or bleeding/hematuria. The rectal area may involve pain or a mass.[secure.ssa.gov]
  • Presented at: HemOnc Today Melanoma and Cutaneous Malignancies; March 24-25, 2017; New York.[healio.com]
  • Overall, 18% of patients have lymphatic metastases at presentation. The average distant metastatic rate at presentation is 10%.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Hunting
  • Hunting and fishing for cancer genes Mucosal melanoma is a rare, but deadly, form of melanoma that occurs in sun-protected tissues. Little is known about the genetic alterations that drive the growth of these tumors.[science.sciencemag.org]
  • Hunt,Remco de Bree,Robert P. Takes,Alessandra Rinaldo,Alfio Ferlito,David W.[jcytol.org]
  • , Orecchia R 2008 Feb;65(2):121-8 Epub 2007 Sep 5 PMID 17822915 Update on primary head and neck mucosal melanoma López F, Rodrigo JP, Cardesa A, Triantafyllou A, Devaney KO, Mendenhall WM, Haigentz M, Strojan P, Pellitteri PK, Bradford CR, Shaha AR, Hunt[atlasgeneticsoncology.org]
Nasal Discharge
  • The patient also gave a history of difficulty in swallowing, speaking, and taking food, and there was no history of nasal stuffiness, nasal discharge, and epistaxis.[ijcpc.org]
  • Two weeks later, he developed occasional episodes of epistaxis and nasal discharge. Neither loss of appetite nor weight was complained. Physical examination showed a large dark brown mass occluded the left nasal cavity.[asianarchpath.com]
Hyposmia
  • Pronunciation \ myü-ˈkō-zəl, \ ˌme-lə-ˈnō-mə Specialty Oncology, pathology, dermatology, gynecology, gastroenterology Symptoms malaise, fatigue, bleeding, diarrhea, constipation, nose bleeds, skin discoloration, itching, discharge, ulcers, anosmia, hyposmia[en.wikipedia.org]
Rectal Mass
  • Some of the symptoms can include: bleeding, discomfort, rectal mass, vaginal bleeding and/or discharge, pigmented spots around the vagina or anus, recurring nose bleeds and discharge.[melanomauk.org.uk]
  • These symptoms differ depending on where the mucosal melanoma develops, but can include bleeding, rectal discomfort, the development of a rectal mass in cases of anorectal mucosal melanoma, vaginal bleeding, vaginal discharge, the development of pigmented[aimatmelanoma.org]
Skin Discoloration
  • […] encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search Mucosal Melanoma Pronunciation \ myü-ˈkō-zəl, \ ˌme-lə-ˈnō-mə Specialty Oncology, pathology, dermatology, gynecology, gastroenterology Symptoms malaise, fatigue, bleeding, diarrhea, constipation, nose bleeds, skin[en.wikipedia.org]
Neglect
  • Large neglected ulcerated melanoma mimicking extramedullary plasmacytoma. Am J Dermatopathol 2011; 33(8):94-8. 25. Heikal NM, Shetty S. Spindle cell variant of multiple myeloma: immunophenotype and cytogenetics abnormalities.[asianarchpath.com]
Aura
  • They are also on the advisory board for Aura Biosciences, Chimeron and Regenix.[tandfonline.com]

Workup

  • Workup Lab Studies: The only study effective in diagnosing oral malignant melanoma is tissue biopsy. Perform clinical examination and biopsy of suspicious unexplained lesions.[oralcancerfoundation.org]

Treatment

  • The average overall survival (time from treatment until death from any cause) was 32 months.[medivizor.com]
  • The findings were presented by Butler et al at the 2017 European Cancer Congress (ECCO). 1 Mucosal melanoma has often been excluded from immunotherapy treatments for the disease.[ascopost.com]
  • To begin with, you see the doctor 2 weeks after starting treatment and then Every month in the first year of treatment Every 2 months in the second year of treatment and then Every 6 months You have a CT or MRI scan every 3 months after you start treatment[cancerresearchuk.org]
  • Ninety per cent of the mucosal melanoma patients had already received at least one prior treatment and 39% of them had received ipilimumab, a type of monoclonal antibody that is already used in the treatment of melanoma.[ecco-org.eu]
  • However, at the last follow-up 14 months after treatment initiation, the CT scans revealed progressive disease in the lung. For this reason, the treatment with imatinib was stopped.[karger.com]

Prognosis

  • It has a poorer prognosis than skin melanoma. It is not clear whether this is due to late diagnosis or the aggressiveness of the cancer. Ways to predict prognosis are needed.[medivizor.com]
  • Researchers had not conducted a careful analysis of tumor thickness ( T-stage ) and related prognosis in mucosal melanoma before Dr. Claus Garbe and Dr.[melanomanewstoday.com]
  • Treatment and prognosis SNMM is aggressive and carries a poor prognosis with a five-year survival rate of 30% 3.[radiopaedia.org]
  • […] and the late diagnosis with evidence of distant metastasis led to poor prognosis.[ijcpc.org]
  • Melanomas that arise from oral mucosa have a poor prognosis unless they are both discovered and treated early.[disabled-world.com]

Etiology

  • The etiology of malignant melanoma and its rate of increase are complex. There are multiple factors that appear to play a role in the development of malignant melanoma, as well as their progression.[disabled-world.com]
  • Disease etiology remains unclear. Approximately one-third of oral cavity tumors are preceded by melanosis.[healio.com]
  • Etiologic factors Until now, the etiologic factors of mucosal melanomas have not been identified. Sun exposure, which is a well-known risk factor for cutaneous melanomas, seems to play no role in the pathogenesis of nonskin melanomas.[dovepress.com]
  • For more information, see the following: Etiology and Pathophysiology Unlike its cutaneous counterpart, exposure to sunlight is not an etiologic factor for mucosal melanoma.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • The etiology of mucosal melanoma is still unknown at present. 6 The highest incidence occurs between the fifth and seventh decades of life, with a slight predilection in men. 2 In the nasopharyngeal cavity, the most common clinical manifestations are[ajnr.org]

Epidemiology

  • Changing epidemiology of anorectal melanoma. Dis Colon Rectum. 1999;42:1203-8. 34. Coté TR, Sobin LH. Primary melanomas of the esophagus and anorectum: epidemiologic comparison with melanoma of the skin. Melanoma Res. 2009;19:58-60. 35.[cancernetwork.com]
  • Article highlights Mucosal melanoma is a rare subtype (1.3%) of melanoma that is epidemiologically and biologically distinct from cutaneous melanoma.[tandfonline.com]
  • Pathology, Rigshospitalet, Teilumbygningen, Frederik V's Vej 11 1 st floor, DK‐2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. e‐mail: sthe@sund.ku.dk Search for more papers by this author First published: 29 August 2018 Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology[onlinelibrary.wiley.com]
  • A 2012 comprehensive review of primary mucosal melanomas in the International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology provides a helpful overview of mucosal melanoma epidemiology and diagnosis.[melanoma.org]
  • Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group. JAMA. 283:2008–2012. 2000.[spandidos-publications.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Get Information clear Open Access Review by 1,2,*, Fanélie Jouenne 2,3, Julie Delyon 1,2,4, Samia Mourah 1,2,3, Armand Bensussan 1,2 and Céleste Lebbé 1,2,4 1 INSERM, U976, Team 1, Human Immunology Pathophysiology & Immunotherapy (HIPI), F-75010 Paris[mdpi.com]
  • For more information, see the following: Etiology and Pathophysiology Unlike its cutaneous counterpart, exposure to sunlight is not an etiologic factor for mucosal melanoma.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Pathophysiology: Oral melanomas are uncommon, and, similar to their cutaneous counterparts, they are thought to arise primarily from melanocytes in the basal layer of the squamous mucosa. Melanocytic density has a regional variation.[oralcancerfoundation.org]

Prevention

  • To help prevent the cancer from returning, your doctor may recommend radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy after surgery has been performed.[pennmedicine.org]
  • Furthermore, expression of several aberrant immunophenotypic markers in malignant melanoma should be aware of in order to prevent misdiagnosis.[asianarchpath.com]
  • […] and early detection of cervical cancer: American Cancer Society, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology screening guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer.[nccn.org]
  • The best way to prevent melanoma is to protect yourself from the sun How? Wear sun-protective clothing and a hat. Avoid excessive sun exposure and sun burning. Avoid sun tanning. Apply sunscreen with high SPF.[susanfazio.org]
  • Antibodies that target CTLA-4 prevent the attenuating function of CTLA-44 and consequently enhance T cell function. CTLA-4 thereby serves as a physiologic “brake” on the activated immune system to maintain normal immune homeostasis ( 27 ).[cco.amegroups.com]

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