Multiple hamartoma syndrome (MHS) also known as Cowden syndrome is a hereditary autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by mutations in the PTEN gene on chromosome 10q23.3. MHS typically manifests with hamartomatous cutaneous and mucosal changes. Furthermore, MHS-associated carcinomas often develop in the thyroid gland as well as in female breasts.
MHS patients must undergo long-term clinical and radiological monitoring and consult medical professionals to screen for neoplasm growth, particularly in breasts, testes, and thyroid annually or biannually.
Genetic counseling in families with MHS occurrence is advisable due to the autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Prevalence is estimated to be 1/200,000 with a penetrance of 90% by the age of 20 years.
Multiple hamartoma syndrome (MHS) is a hereditary disorder with autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Mutations in the PTEN gene on the long arm of chromosome 10 are the sole culprit for this disorder . MHS was first described in 1963 by Lloyd and Dennis, who termed the disorder "Cowden disease" after the family of its first reported occurrence .
Together with Proteus syndrome, Proteus-like syndrome, and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvulcaba syndrome, MHS can be categorized into a set of syndromes which are all associated with pathological modifications of the PTEN gene . PTEN encodes a phosphatase which dephosphorylates the 3 position of phosphoinositide, thus affecting a cell signaling pathway and eventually disrupting the unwanted cell proliferation. Hence, PTEN mutations inhibiting this suppression favour tumor growth .
Cutaneous neoplasms are most often found in the form of facial trichilemmomas and periorificial flesh-colored lichenoid or verrucoid papules with a size of up to 5 mm. Moreover, smooth oral whitish papules on palate, gingiva, and lips affect up to 80% of MHS patients. 60% of patients also present with acral keratoses on the dorsal hands and feet. Sclerotic fibromas are another key finding in MHS patients . PTEN mutations are associated with an approximate 6% lifetime risk of developing melanoma .
MHS is associated with a notably increased risk of malignant thyroid and breast neoplasms. Additionally, malignancies in the colon, uterus, bladder, lung, and cervix have been found in MHS patients  . MHS can also manifest with macrocephaly, autistic features, mental retardation, and vascular anomalies .
Entire Body System
[…] important unreported findings that include multiple cutaneous trichilemmomas, cafe-au-lait spots, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, pathologic fracture, craniomegaly, probable malignant lung tumor, retinal glioma, drusens of the optic disk and retina, pseudotumor [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
[…] of the soft palate and uvula, scrotal tongue, periodontitis and extensive dental cavities.9,13 Regarding eye alterations, lenticular opacity, hypertelorism, congenital vascular abnormality of the bottom of the eye, glaucoma, angioid streaks, cerebral pseudotumor [scielo.br]
The fifth chapter presents the so-called infiltrative dermatoses: pseudotumor reactions resulting from the process of endocytosis following lipoprotein extravasation, deposition of acid mucopolysaccharides in dermopathy, in endocrine and internal organ [healthdocbox.com]
She developed a goitre at the age of 16 years, but was euthyroid and ultrasonography showed a multinodular goitre. Hypertrichosis was noted when she was 17 years old. [hkmj.org]
Diagnostic criteria for CS were initially proposed by Salem and Steck in 1983.  International Cowden Consortium (1995) recommended a revised classification to ascertain CS families, to which were added endometrial and renal cell carcinoma in 2000.  The plethora [e-ijd.org]
- Cutaneous Manifestation
european journal of dermatology. 2013; 23(5): 581-591 8 Cutaneous manifestations of gastrointestinal disease Kejal R. [ijdr.in]
manifestations of the histiocytoses -- Vascular neoplasms and malformations -- Diabetes and the skin -- Thyroid and the skin -- Cutaneous manifestations of lipid disorders -- Adrenal, androgen-related, and pituitary disorders -- Porphyrias -- Cutaneous [worldcat.org]
Most patients present to the physician because of cutaneous manifestations. [dermaamin.com]
Face, Head & Neck
- Neck Swelling
A visible right neck swelling was also noted and further questioning revealed symptoms of dysphagia as well as a history of prior left thyroidectomy for a multinodular goiter. [doi.org]
- Neck Mass
Young, PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome presenting as a neck mass in a pediatric patient, International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra, 19, (1), (2018). Paul J. Newey and Rajesh V. [doi.org]
- Cerebellar Ataxia
Patients have macrocephaly, slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia (which usually appears in adulthood), and signs of increased intracranial pressure.  Cases of Lhermitte-Duclos disease occurring without any other evidence of Cowden disease (multiple [emedicine.medscape.com]
Lhermitte-Duclos disease: part of Cowden syndrome; hamartoma of cerebellum, macrocephaly, progressive cerebellar ataxia, signs of increased ICP Joseph Merrick “The Elephant Man” once thought to have neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1), reclassified as having Proteus [unboundmedicine.com]
Patients have macrocephaly, slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia (which usually appears in adulthood), and signs of increased intracranial pressure. [dermaamin.com]
The diagnosis of MHS requires a detailed analysis of the family history to corroborate a suspicion for this inherited disorder. Clinical signs of MHS are characteristic benign cutaneous changes in the periorificial region and oral tumors.
Key laboratory tests include a complete blood count (CBC) which, if anemia is present, may hint towards gastrointestinal hemorrhage as a consequence of colonic neoplasms, which will then have to be verified in an endoscopic procedure. Furthermore, thyroid function should be checked upon the first presentation and monitored annually in the case of an MHS diagnosis. Thyroid ultrasonography is recommended with the same interval . Urinalysis may yield proteinuria or hematuria, which can be a consequence of renal neoplasms. A skin biopsy will be necessary to assess the nature of cutaneous changes. Regular ultrasonography of the testes, as well as mammography for both genders, are imperative .
Irrefutable evidence for an MHS diagnosis is provided by a positive test for PTEN mutations. Multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is the method of choice .
Colorectal polyps are described in five patients with Cowden's disease. A brother-sister kindred and two unrelated patients had multiple colonic polyps 0.1-0.4 cm in diameter. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
The quality of bowel preparation and imaging could affect polyp detection by CE; nevertheless, we think that there were more jejunal polyps than ileal polyps in our patients. [hindawi.com]
[…] with thyroid carcinomas Frequent thyroid carcinomas PTEN mutations not seen PTEN mutations in 80% GI polyps exophytic, cystic, eroded GI polyps sessile, few cysts, not eroded Ganglion cells not seen in GI polyps Ganglion cells may be present in GI polyps [surgpathcriteria.stanford.edu]
hyperplastic polyp, ganglioneuroma, adenoma and inflammatory polyp Possible association with gastric cancer (Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:476) Colon: multiple polyps, usually hamartomas (resemble juvenile polyps); also ganglioneuroma, adenoma, inflammatory [pathologyoutlines.com]
Multiple biopsies of the skin and lower intestine, and possibly the tumor in patients with cancer, before starting treatment, at 2 weeks of treatment and at 8 weeks of treatment. [clinicaltrials.gov]
Treatment with systemic retinoids has shown to control the skin lesions associated with Cowden syndrome. Topical treatment has shown to be of minimal benefit. [aocd.org]
Patient's satisfied smile confirmed the success of our treatment [Figure 9]. She was not interested in the treatment of the thyroid and breast cyst. [jhrr.org]
The clinical manifestations, surgical treatment and postoperative results of three patients with gangliocytomas of the cerebellum (Lhermitte-Duclos disease) are presented. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Prognosis The pinpointing of the diagnosis (especially by gene) and instituting organ-specific surveillance at the right time results in a good prognosis. When advanced cancers occur before diagnosis is made, a poor outcome is common. [orpha.net]
[…] includes a brief description of each individual lesion or pathologic condition and the kind of pathologic process that it represents, followed by a discussion of its clinical and/or radiographic presentation, histopathologic features, and its treatment and prognosis [books.google.com]
They are organised into groups, and further divided into clinical, etiological or histopathological sub-types. [orpha.net]
Taken together, these molecular based observations, together with previous clinical epidemiological studies, 2 were felt sufficient to revise the Consortium criteria for the diagnosis of CS to include endometrial carcinoma (table 2 ). [doi.org]
E Epidemiology of Cowden syndrome (2 F) Media in category "Cowden syndrome" The following 4 files are in this category, out of 4 total. [commons.wikimedia.org]
Pathology, Soroka Medical Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel †Department of Pathology & ARUP Laboratories Department of Internal Medicine ‡Huntsman Cancer Institute §Genetic Counseling ¶Division of Gastroenterology #Division of Epidemiology [journals.lww.com]
Epidemiology [ edit ] Lhermitte–Duclos disease is a rare entity; approximately 222 cases of LDD have been reported in medical literature.  Symptoms of the disease most commonly manifest in the third and fourth decades of life, although it may onset [en.wikipedia.org]
[…] lhermitte-duclos disease) 1 Enlarged circumscribed cerebellar folia 2 internal granular layer is focally indistinct and is occupied by large ganglion cells 3 myelinated tracks in outer molecular layer 4 underlying white matter is atrophic and gliotic Pathophysiology [en.wikipedia.org]
This may raise the possibility of new pathophysiology and clinical syndrome as target of PTEN pathway. Conflict of interest: None declared. Reference 1 Epidemiology and etiopathogenesis of pituitary adenomas. [academic.oup.com]
Lhermitte-Duclos disease, so named for French neurologists Jacques Lhermitte and P Duclos after their initial description of the entity in 1920, has undergone a spectrum of growth in pathophysiologic understanding recently and is now considered to be [appliedradiology.com]
Kelly Passarello, Shiney Kurian and Valerie Villanueva, Endometrial Cancer: An Overview of Pathophysiology, Management, and Care, Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 10.1016/j.soncn.2019.02.002, (2019). Ruchi Tiwari, Achint K. Singh, Alexander S. [doi.org]
Contenuti: Molecular Tools in Cancer Research -- Intracellular Signaling -- The Cellular Microenvironment and Metastases -- Control of the Cell Cycle -- Pathophysiology of Cancer Cell Death -- Cancer Immunology -- Stem Cells, Cell Differentiation, and [worldcat.org]
Timely diagnosis of affected patients is key, as early recognition allows for high-risk screening and other preventative measures prior to a patient enduring multiple cancer diagnoses. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Some women at increased risk for breast cancer consider prophylactic mastectomy (removal of the breasts to prevent cancer). Thyroid cancer screening. [my.clevelandclinic.org]
Starting at age 40: All adults with CS : a colonoscopy every 2 years, and a kidney ultrasound scan or MRI every 2 years Preventive surgery: Women with CS: The preventive removal of the breasts before cancer develops through a surgery called a prophylactic [cancer.net]
Yurgelun, Genetic predisposition to colorectal cancer: Implications for treatment and prevention, Seminars in Oncology, 43, 5, (536), (2016). Nicholas R. [doi.org]
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- Eng C. PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome (PHTS). In: GeneReviews. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Seattle; 2016. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1488 Accessed October 28th, 2017.
- Milas M, Mester J, Metzger R, Shin J, Mitchell J, Berber E. Should patients with Cowden syndrome undergo prophylactic thyroidectomy?. Surgery. 2012; 152(6):1201-1210.
- Woodhouse J, Ferguson MM. Multiple hyperechoic testicular lesions are a common finding on ultrasound in Cowden disease and represent lipomatosis of the testis. Br J Radiol. 2006;79(946):801-803.