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Mumps Encephalitis

Mumps Virus Encephalitis


Presentation

  • It may present early by direct invasion following initial infection, or late as a post infectious (ADEM) event.[adc.bmj.com]
  • I am presently interested in historical subjects including historical virology: see for example To Catch a Virus, Booss and August, ASM Press, 2013; and Neurovirology in the Elsevier series Handbook of Clinical Neurology, eds, Tselis and Booss, forthcoming[books.google.com]
  • The MMR vaccine used in the present study is MMRII , manufactured by Merck & Co.[google.sr]
  • The common presenting signs and symptoms seen in patients with mumps CNS infection are summarized in Table 16.1. The most frequently reported presentation is a triad of fever, vomiting, and headache.[oncohemakey.com]
  • Around this time, the patient started to experience visual hallucinations and reported seeing cats and people who were not present, as well as auditory hallucinations: clicking sounds and strange voices.[ajnr.org]
High Fever
  • On arrival, he was in a confused state with high fever and neck stiffness. There was no parotitis. Visual and auditory hallucinations were observed. There was no abnormality in the cerebral nerves except for a tongue tremor of 5 6 Hz.[ajnr.org]
  • Call your doctor if your child has a high fever, especially if he or she also has a childhood illness (like measles, mumps, or chickenpox) or is recovering from one.[kidshealth.org]
  • fever (about 1 out of every 3,000 doses) Temporary (short-term) low platelet count (about 1 out of every 30,000 doses) Like any medicine, there's a very small chance that the mumps vaccine could cause a serious reaction.[vaccines.gov]
  • Orchitis presents with high fevers (39-41 C), severe testicular pain accompanied by swelling, and erythema of the scrotum. Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain are often present.[reference.medscape.com]
  • Mumps has become an uncommon illness and is sometimes misdiagnosed with a high fever and swollen salivary glands that are actually indicative of tonsillitis [3].[microbewiki.kenyon.edu]
Visual Hallucination
  • Around this time, the patient started to experience visual hallucinations and reported seeing cats and people who were not present, as well as auditory hallucinations: clicking sounds and strange voices.[ajnr.org]
Auditory Hallucination
  • Visual and auditory hallucinations as well as tongue tremor persisted. When we administered risperidone (1 mg/day), the visual and auditory hallucinations and tongue tremor gradually improved and disappeared by day 21.[ajnr.org]
Stupor
  • […] recognize: Body stiffness Irritability and crying more often (these symptoms may get worse when the baby is picked up) Poor feeding Soft spot on the top of the head may bulge out more Vomiting Emergency symptoms: Loss of consciousness, poor responsiveness, stupor[medlineplus.gov]
  • There is a broad range of possible manifestations of altered mental status including personality changes, irritability lethargy, stupor, or coma.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]
Altered Mental Status
Polyneuropathy
  • Cytomegaloviral hepatitis B25.2 Cytomegaloviral pancreatitis B25.8 Other cytomegaloviral diseases B25.9 Cytomegaloviral disease, unspecified B26.1 Mumps meningitis B26.2 Mumps encephalitis B26.3 Mumps pancreatitis B26.8 Mumps with other complications B26.84 Mumps polyneuropathy[icd10data.com]
Tonic-Clonic Seizure
  • A 21-year-old man had been experiencing coldlike symptoms with headache and fever for a week when he vomited and had a tonic-clonic seizure and was subsequently taken to a nearby emergency hospital (day 1).[ajnr.org]

Workup

  • (See Workup.) Child with mumps. Even though the mumps virus, Rubulavirus, shares similar morphologic features to human parainfluenza viruses (known as hPIVs, as part of the Paramyxovirus genus), no cross-immunity between these viruses is known.[reference.medscape.com]
Cytopenia
  • Post-transplant autoimmune cytopenias necessitated rituximab therapy, following which immunoglobulin replacement therapy was administered.[link.springer.com]

Treatment

  • There is no cure for encephalitis, but the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, antiviral drugs, and fluids as a treatment option has been successful in some cases. Mumps encephalitis can be prevented by the MMR vaccine, which is given to infants.[novusbio.com]
  • “Study of the epidemiology in terms of etiology and time trends is important to aid further understanding of patterns of the disease, gain useful information for future research and aid priority setting in the prevention and treatment of encephalitis.[healio.com]
  • 1 Royal Alexandra Children's Hospital, Brighton, UK 2 Paediatric Infection and Immunology, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, UK Abstract Aims To raise awareness of potentially serious complications of Mumps, and to discuss diagnostic and treatment[adc.bmj.com]
  • Information about a therapy, service, product or treatment does not in any way endorse or support such therapy, service, product or treatment and is not intended to replace advice from your doctor or other registered health professional.[betterhealth.vic.gov.au]
  • Anti-infective agents Choice of treatment varies widely based on suspected or confirmed etiologic agent. Please see Table II for treatment options. Table II. Treatment options and adjunctive therapies for specific organisms.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]

Prognosis

  • It is important for the clinician to establish whether an individual patient with mumps has clear evidence of encephalitis because that diagnosis has important implications for management and prognosis.[oncohemakey.com]
  • Autism Mechanism Autism Classification Autism Screening Autism Prognosis[news-medical.net]
  • What should you tell the family about the patient's prognosis? The most predictive factor for prognosis in patients with encephalitis is the severity of disease.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]
  • PROGNOSIS : Secondary bacterial infections of the respiratory and urinary tracts are major complications of acute encephalitis.[atsu.edu]

Etiology

  • Annual age-specific and age-standardized admission rates in each calendar year were analyzed in addition to trends in admission rates with a noted etiology with the introduction of PCR testing and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines.[healio.com]
  • In this study we evaluated the incidence rates, seasonal variety and the main etiologic agents of AME, and identified factors that could be used to predict the etiologic agents.[journals.plos.org]
  • An etiologic relationship between gestational mumps and endocardial fibroelastosis has been postulated ( 138 ).[oncohemakey.com]
  • In the majority of cases, an etiologic agent is never identified.[infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com]
  • The etiology of the contacts’ illness was determined by viral culture, genomic sequencing, serology and epidemiological linking.[medscienceresearch.com]

Epidemiology

  • However, little is known about the epidemiology of all-cause childhood encephalitis in England because previous studies have either involved a specific etiological group — for example, viral encephalitis — or a predominantly adult population,” Mildred[healio.com]
  • Epidemiology The following is the clinical definition of mumps for the purpose of epidemiological surveillance: Any person with fever and at least one of the following: (1) sudden onset of unilateral or bilateral tender swelling of the parotid gland or[ecdc.europa.eu]
  • Describe the changing epidemiology of mumps. Monitor vaccine effectiveness.[who.int]
  • Tabs Content Clinical Overview Diagnosis Indications for Testing Atypical presentation of secondary complications in patients with apparent mumps Suspected outbreak – test patients for epidemiologic evidence Laboratory Testing Limited role for laboratory[arupconsult.com]
  • The IOM found no relevant epidemiologic studies of quality in the literature assessing an association between vaccination and MIBE [8].[vaccinesafety.edu]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • PATHOGENESIS AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Mumps is highly contagious, although some studies have suggested that it is less contagious than varicella or measles ( 68 ).[oncohemakey.com]

Prevention

  • Mumps encephalitis can be prevented by the MMR vaccine, which is given to infants.[novusbio.com]
  • “Study of the epidemiology in terms of etiology and time trends is important to aid further understanding of patterns of the disease, gain useful information for future research and aid priority setting in the prevention and treatment of encephalitis.[healio.com]
  • Rubella is a vaccine preventable disease.[google.sr]
  • Prevention Exclude the person with mumps from childcare, preschool, school and work for 5 days after the onset of swelling tissues and other objects soiled with nasal secretions should be disposed of appropriately mumps is best prevented by the measles[sahealth.sa.gov.au]
  • […] vomiting medication to prevent seizures (anticonvulsant) medication to reduce fever, such as paracetamol fluids to prevent dehydration, but not too much as this can worsen cerebral oedema (swelling of the brain).[betterhealth.vic.gov.au]

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