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Muscle Cramp

Muscle Cramps


Presentation

  • Muscle cramps were present in 26% (n 13) cases. Peripheral arterial disease was present in 30% (n 15) of patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Earlier this month, at the American College of Sports Medicine annual meeting in Boston, the company, Flex Pharma, finally unveiled its product and presented some of its research.[runnersworld.com]
Respiratory Distress
  • They found that when salt depletion started to kick in it quickly led to: “… aberrations of flavor, cramps, weakness, lassitude, and severe cardio-respiratory distress on exertion.”[trainingpeaks.com]
Muscle Twitch
  • Athlete suffering from severe cramp films calf muscle MOVING inside leg after intense workout causes involuntary contractions The man had just participated in an intense Muay Thai training session He exhaled air in pain as he filmed his muscle twitching[dailymail.co.uk]
  • I could feel muscle twitches in my quads, and my quads were burning. I had to slow down as I felt the cramp coming on. Then wham! Like a sledgehammer to my leg, the cramp hit and I had to stop and rub it out.[active.com]
  • PUBLISHED: 10:55, Thu, Aug 17, 2017 UPDATED: 13:22, Thu, Aug 17, 2017 Angel Bermudez, from California, filmed the 50-second clip while in agonising pain following a gym session and captured the bizarre moment his muscles twitched as if something was alive[express.co.uk]
  • Loss of sensation or pain unless they occur at the same time as the cramping If people have cramps in the arms or trunk or muscle twitching, the cause is more likely to be a disorder (such as an electrolyte or endocrine disorder) or a drug than benign[msdmanuals.com]
  • In people with muscle cramps, the following symptoms and characteristics are of particular concern: Cramps in the arms or trunk Muscle twitching Alcoholism Weakness Cramps that occur after loss of body fluids (dehydration) or use of diuretics Pain or[merckmanuals.com]
Myopathy
  • Muscular system: Some myopathies (diseases that affect skeletal muscles); and Myotonia (temporary muscle stiffness or contraction).[myvmc.com]
  • Causes of generalised muscle pain - eg, polymyositis , toxoplasmosis , alcohol-related myopathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome , polymyalgia rheumatica , Parkinsonism , fibromyalgia . Investigations Usually no investigation is indicated.[patient.info]
  • […] disorders Low levels of potassium ( hypokalemia ), low levels of magnesium ( hypomagnesemia ), or low levels of calcium ( hypocalcemia ) in the blood Alcoholism Hypothyroidism (an underactive thyroid gland) Musculoskeletal disorders Tight calf muscles Myopathies[msdmanuals.com]
  • […] endocrine) disorders Low levels of potassium ( hypokalemia ), low levels of magnesium ( hypomagnesemia ), or low levels of calcium ( hypocalcemia ) Alcoholism Hypothyroidism (an underactive thyroid gland) Musculoskeletal disorders Tight calf muscles Myopathies[merckmanuals.com]
Myofascial Trigger Point
  • Other strategies such as incorporating plyometrics or eccentric muscle strengthening into training programmes, maintaining adequate carbohydrate reserves during competition or treating myofascial trigger points are speculative and require investigation[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Cramps in the triceps surae also have been experimentally elicited by stimulating the calf Ia afferents with Achilles tendon taps/vibration ( 1,2 ) and by nociceptive stimulation of myofascial trigger points ( 6 ).[journals.lww.com]
Excitement
  • Several mechanisms may be involved including spinal disinhibition, abnormal excitability of motor nerve terminals and spreading of muscle contraction by ephaptic transmission or axon reflexes.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Maintaining Neuromuscular Performance Some important clues have surfaced over the past few years that lend support to the notion that “calming” hyper-excited nerves will prevent muscle cramps.[home.trainingpeaks.com]
  • Future studies directed to the investigation of motor neuron excitability during cramps in humans and to the analysis of cortical excitability by magnetic stimulation applied to the motor cortex would shed light into the central (spinal and cortical)[journals.lww.com]
Hand Tremor
  • This study revealed a previously unrecognized link between cramp and hand tremor in children with CMT1A.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This is known as ‘writer’s cramp’ and can be associated with hand tremor. Eyelids Dystonia can cause your eyelid muscles to contract, making you blink a lot.[parkinsons.org.uk]

Treatment

  • Most systemic diseases that cause muscle cramps are amenable to specific treatment. If symptomatic treatment is desired, the first choice would appear to be stretching.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Further treatment – see your doctor if you experience regular muscle cramping or if cramps last longer than a few minutes. You may have an undiagnosed medical condition that requires treatment.[betterhealth.vic.gov.au]

Prognosis

  • What Is the Prognosis for Muscle Cramps? Although cramps can be a great nuisance, they are a benign condition. Their importance is limited to the discomfort and inconvenience they cause or to the diseases associated with them.[emedicinehealth.com]
  • Source: iStock What is the prognosis of recurrent muscle cramps? Although cramps can be a great nuisance, they are a benign condition.[medicinenet.com]

Etiology

  • As a fuller picture of the etiology (cause) of muscle cramps is emerging through studies by researchers such as Dr. Rod MacKinnon, a Nobel Prize-winning neuroscientist, there are new insights that will help prevent or minimize cramps.[home.trainingpeaks.com]
  • There is little definitive knowledge of the etiology of ERMC.[scientificamerican.com]
  • Muscle cramp: main theories as to etiology. Eur. Arch. Psychiatry Neurol. Sci. 1990; 239: 337–42. 8. Jung AP, Bishop PA, Al-Nawwas A, Dale RB.[journals.lww.com]
  • Practically all categories in the chapter could be designated 'not otherwise specified', 'unknown etiology' or 'transient'.[icd10data.com]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology Groups at increased risk: Up to 60% of adults report that they have had nocturnal leg cramps. [ 1 ] The problem is often distressing, impacting on sleep, and has an adverse effect on quality of life.[patient.info]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Abstract Historically relevant hypotheses on the pathophysiology of muscle cramp are reviewed. Psychosomatic, static, vascular, myogenic and neural theories are highlighted from a clinician's point of view.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, several unresolved issues in cramp pathophysiology and management still remain and require further investigation.[journals.lww.com]
  • Physiology and pathophysiology of musculoskeletal tissues. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 1. Updated by: Linda J.[nlm.nih.gov]
  • Pathophysiology [ edit ] Skeletal muscle, with myofibrils labeled at upper right and sarcoplasmic reticulum at bottom Muscle contraction begins with the brain setting off action potentials, which are waves in the electrical charges that extend along neurons[en.wikipedia.org]

Prevention

  • Abstract In order to compare the efficacy of a daily dose of 300 mg hydroquinine hydrobromide and placebo in preventing frequent ordinary muscle cramp, we designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of three consecutive 2-week periods[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Consuming carbohydrates appropriately is well-worth it to prevent a muscle cramp. Follow these five steps to prevent muscle cramps: Train appropriately. Acclimate yourself to the environment.[active.com]
  • Prevention IS better than cure. 1. General health and fitness One of the most useful things you can do to help prevent muscle cramps and spasms is to work on improving your overall general health and fitness.[stretchcoach.com]
  • How to Prevent Muscle Spasms While Pregnant Ideally, it is best to take steps to prevent muscle spasms versus spending time treating them when they occur.[americanpregnancy.org]
  • If you are predisposed to cramps, this may help prevent them.[wisconsindialysis.org]

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