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Muscular Atrophy

Atrophy (Muscular)


  • Those mutations, not described previously, were characteristic of patients presenting a severe phenotype. The most frequent missense mutation - p.Thr274Ile, was identified in 9 patients presenting a rather mild phenotype.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This case presented with 2 rare genetic neuromuscular disorders and the atypical HNPP phenotype.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Neuromyopathy associated ketosis should be considered in all patients with severe muscle wasting presenting with an elevated anion gap metabolic ketoacidosis. Treatment is simple, effective, and should be instituted early.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We report the case of a Spanish boy of Caucasian origin who presented a generalized congenital muscular hypotonia, more intense at lower limb muscles, mildly elevated creatine kinase (CK), serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and lactate.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • They presented common features associated to patients affected by SMBA, such as gynecomastia, high level of CPK, muscle cramps, fasciculations, muscle wastage, and impaired swallowing.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Genetic and molecular analyses showed that the mutation acts in the EphA4-Limk1-Cfl1/cofilin-actin pathway to modulate growth cone extension/collapse.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Regular use of such therapies, most importantly the cough assist machine, are invaluable in the setting of a superimposed respiratory illness and can help prevent a simple cold or bronchitis from evolving into pneumonia or a collapsed lung resulting in[massgeneral.org]
  • The chest wall will "collapse". (8) Causing a bell shaped chest and pectoral encavatum. (8) Signs of having increase difficulty with respiration includes hypoventaliation during sleep.[morphopedics.wikidot.com]
  • Thus, the chest wall in children with SMA type 1 or 2 often appears collapsed and bell shaped because of a lack of opposition of the intercostal muscles against the function of the diaphragm (see Fig 1 www.pediatrics.org/content/vol123/Supplement_4 ).[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
Multiple Congenital Anomalies
  • METHODS: We report a case of an adolescent male who presented with typical JMADUE but also had joint hypermobility and multiple congenital anomalies, including periventricular heterotopias, suggesting a multisystem syndrome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Failure to Thrive
  • While intellectual development remains normal, muscle weakness often leads to respiratory failure and generalized failure to thrive. There are three types of SMA, each with varying degrees of severity and limited treatment options.[globalgenes.org]
  • Failure to thrive. If your child has SMA, you might look for symptoms such as: Delays in gross motor development, such as walking—or the loss of skills already mastered. Frequent respiratory infections that get worse with each infection.[gillettechildrens.org]
  • CsA-induced myopathy with muscular atrophy is rare and serious, which can be identified according to pathological characteristics.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Summarizing what is known today, mutations in AIFM1 are associated with a progressive disorder with myopathy, ataxia and neuropathy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Loss of muscle not due to atrophy or sarcopenia is indicative of diseases that result in structural defects of muscles (muscular dystrophy) or autoimmune responses that degrade muscle structure (myopathies).[courses.lumenlearning.com]
  • Other causes for muscle atrophy include: lack of physical activity for an extended period of time aging alcohol-associated myopathy, a pain and weakness in muscles due to excessive drinking over long periods of time burns injuries, such as a torn rotator[healthline.com]
  • Differential diagnosis Motor neurone disease Primary lateral sclerosis Muscular dystrophy Congenital myopathies Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism ( glycogen storage diseases ) Myasthenia gravis Poliomyelitis Investigations Blood tests Creatine kinase[patient.info]
Atrophy of Hand Muscle
  • […] of hand Muscle atrophy of L ankle and foot Muscle atrophy of L forearm Muscle atrophy of L hand Muscle atrophy of L lower leg Muscle atrophy of L shoulder Muscle atrophy of L thigh Muscle atrophy of L upper arm Muscle atrophy of left ankle Muscle atrophy[icd9data.com]
Atrophy of the Thigh Muscles
  • Muscle atrophy of right hand Muscle atrophy of right lower leg Muscle atrophy of right shoulder Muscle atrophy of right thigh Muscle atrophy of right upper arm Muscle atrophy of shoulder Muscle atrophy of thigh Muscle atrophy of upper arm Muscular atrophy[icd9data.com]
  • Cyclosporine was withdrawn and replaced with cyclophosphamide tablets, prednisone remain unchanged and other symptomatic therapies were also administered.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Limb Weakness
  • His bilateral thigh muscle atrophy showed improvement and lower limb weakness was obviously alleviated and he could stand and walk with the help of others 4 weeks later.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • As the disease progresses patients may notice limb weakness starting in the pelvis or shoulders, or weakness of the facial and tongue muscles. Symptoms of SMA-LED often develop in infancy or early childhood.[cedars-sinai.edu]
  • In addition to muscle weakness, clinical features include head lag, poor sucking and swallowing, weak cry, proximal limb weakness, and lack of reflexes. Affected children never raise their head, roll over, or walk.[encyclopedia.com]
Psychomotor Regression
  • Less frequent symptoms were hearing loss, seizures and psychomotor regression. Results from clinical chemistry, brain imaging and muscle biopsy were unspecific and inconsistent.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Check Orphan checkorphan.org This nonprofit organization is dedicated to people working with or affected by rare, orphan or neglected diseases.[avexis.com]


  • Treatment is simple, effective, and should be instituted early.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We are at the forefront of developing and validating new treatment approaches, such as Spinraza, the only treatment available for spinal muscular atrophy.[stanfordhealthcare.org]
  • They are here to respond to the urgent need for support, education, mainstream awareness and treatments.[avexis.com]
  • We’re also involved in innovative research that’s led to a true breakthrough in SMA treatment.[nemours.org]
  • We have a large program at Children’s National both for treatment and for close monitoring and systematic clinical follow up pre- and post- initiation of treatment.[childrensnational.org]


  • Prognosis The prognosis is poor for babies with SMA Type I. Most die within the first two years.[ninds.nih.gov]
  • prognosis of these patients 7,8.[radiopaedia.org]
  • Prognosis The prognosis for spinal muscular atrophy is variable. Life expectancy is dependent on the degree of respiratory impairment present.[healthofchildren.com]
  • […] atrophy results from a co-morbidity of several common diseases, including cancer, AIDS, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal failure, and severe burns ; patients who have " cachexia " in these disease settings have a poor prognosis[en.wikipedia.org]


  • The etiology is unknown, but cervical hyperflexion has been hypothesized.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]


  • SMA with respiratory distress (SMARD1) Inheritance is autosomal recessive due to mutations in the IGHMBP2 gene on chromosome 11q13. [ 9 ] Epidemiology The estimated incidence is between 1 in 6,000 and 1 in 10,000 live births and the carrier frequency[patient.info]
  • Chronic childhood spinal muscular atrophy in Germany (West-Thuringen): an epidemiological study. Hum Genet. 1994 ; 93 (3): 344 – 346 Dubowitz V. Disorders of the lower motor neurone: the spinal muscular atrophies. In: Muscle Disorders in Childhood.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • Pathophysiology Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) types I-III Inheritance is autosomal recessive. Affected individuals have two copies of the altered gene. Those who carry one copy are usually unaffected carriers.[patient.info]
  • NIV use in SMA requires consideration of respiratory pathophysiology. Individuals with SMA maintain minute ventilation with a high respiratory rate and small tidal volume.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]


  • Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and rehabilitation may help to improve posture, prevent joint immobility, and slow muscle weakness and atrophy.[ninds.nih.gov]
  • Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a potent immunosuppressive agent originally used to prevent rejection after organ transplantation but now more frequently used for treatment of refractory autoimmune diseases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Standing programs for children who can't walk are used to maintain muscle flexibility and length, prevent contractures, promote musculoskeletal development, and prevent bone-mineral density loss.[moveforwardpt.com]
  • SMA cannot be prevented, but prospective parents can request genetic testing if they may be carriers. Types There are different types of SMA.[medicalnewstoday.com]
  • With as many as 1/40 individuals unknowingly carrying the recessive gene for SMA, genetic screening for parents-to-be is the best option for prevention.[globalgenes.org]

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