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Mussel Poisoning


Presentation

  • This case series, from the Washington Poison Control Center, describes 7 patients who presented to hospital with symptoms of PSP after consuming mussels harvested at night from a local beach.[thepoisonreview.com]
  • Mussels sampled during this period were characterised and presented along with phytoplankton data from the same period and presented as a first report of PSP toxins from Icelandic waters.[arrow.dit.ie]
  • Infections may result from ingesting contaminated shellfish that has been harvested from an area with K. brevis cells and brevetoxins present in the water.[floridahealth.gov]
  • Technical information for medical professionals covering the following topics: Background, Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, Management and Treatment, and Molecular Mechanism of Action Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning Ciguatera Fish Poisoning Diarrhetic Shellfish[whoi.edu]
  • “Now, we can immediately establish whether the toxin is present,”Orr states.[sciencenordic.com]
Falling
  • They include: Abdominal cramps Diarrhea (severe and watery) Nausea and vomiting Shortly after these symptoms develop, you will start to have strange sensations, which may include: A feeling that your teeth are loose and about to fall out Confusing hot[medlineplus.gov]
  • If we eat only a few kinds of fish, then numbers of these fish can fall very low due to overfishing of these stocks. Overfishing endangers the future supply of the fish and can also cause damage to the environment from which the fish is caught.[nhs.uk]
Dyspnea
  • Neurological symptoms reported include nervousness, dilated pupils, severe headache, numbness, tingling, hypersalivation, dyspnea, progressive muscular paralysis, convulsions, coma, and death.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Respiratory Distress
  • ) bivalve shellfish and puffer fish Paralytic numbness/tingling of the mouth and/or lips; nausea, vomiting; respiratory distress; drowsiness; muscle weakness; incoherent speech Yes.[myfwc.com]
Diarrhea
  • The most common symptoms, which started 1-2 hours after consumption of the mussels, were paresthesias, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, ataxia, weakness and a “floating sensation” that is said to be characteristic of PSP.[thepoisonreview.com]
  • It has been known for a long time that consumption of mussels and other bivalve shellfish can cause poisoning in humans, with symptoms ranging from diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting to neurotoxicological effects, including paralysis and even death in extreme[sciencedaily.com]
  • Synonyms and Keywords wilderness: shellfish poisoning, gastrointestinal; food poisoning ; diarrhea ; abdominal cramps; vomiting; nausea[webmd.com]
  • Dinophysis species, Prorocentrum species (okadaic acid) clams, oysters, mussels, whelk Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) diarrhea, nausea, vomiting; abdominal cramps; chills No Gambierdiscus species (ciguatoxins) large reef fish species such as barracuda[myfwc.com]
  • Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is exactly what it sounds like: diarrhea. Diarrhea, cramps, naseau, and vomitting, are all possible symptoms. Either way, somethings coming out of you or making you wish it would.[naturespoisons.com]
Diarrhea
  • The most common symptoms, which started 1-2 hours after consumption of the mussels, were paresthesias, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, ataxia, weakness and a “floating sensation” that is said to be characteristic of PSP.[thepoisonreview.com]
  • It has been known for a long time that consumption of mussels and other bivalve shellfish can cause poisoning in humans, with symptoms ranging from diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting to neurotoxicological effects, including paralysis and even death in extreme[sciencedaily.com]
  • Synonyms and Keywords wilderness: shellfish poisoning, gastrointestinal; food poisoning ; diarrhea ; abdominal cramps; vomiting; nausea[webmd.com]
  • Dinophysis species, Prorocentrum species (okadaic acid) clams, oysters, mussels, whelk Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) diarrhea, nausea, vomiting; abdominal cramps; chills No Gambierdiscus species (ciguatoxins) large reef fish species such as barracuda[myfwc.com]
  • Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is exactly what it sounds like: diarrhea. Diarrhea, cramps, naseau, and vomitting, are all possible symptoms. Either way, somethings coming out of you or making you wish it would.[naturespoisons.com]
Food Poisoning
  • Scientists fear diners who fell ill after eating mussels suffered a type of food poisoning not seen in Britain for 30 years.[news.bbc.co.uk]
  • Living with food poisoning Food poisoning is a condition that comes and goes. However, you can be more likely to get food poisoning than other people. Children and the elderly are most likely to get food poisoning.[familydoctor.org]
  • Scombroid poisoning is discussed further in our fish food poisoning section.[medic8.com]
  • Topics: food-poisoning, water-pollution, orford-7190 First posted October 06, 2015 20:08:19[abc.net.au]
  • Synonyms and Keywords wilderness: shellfish poisoning, gastrointestinal; food poisoning ; diarrhea ; abdominal cramps; vomiting; nausea[webmd.com]
Erythema
  • Physical signs may include a diffuse blanching erythema, tachycardia, wheezing, and hypotension or hypertension. More severe cardiovascular manifestations attributed to scombroid poisoning have been reported but are rare.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Fear
  • Scientists fear diners who fell ill after eating mussels suffered a type of food poisoning not seen in Britain for 30 years.[news.bbc.co.uk]
Circumoral Paresthesia
  • Circumoral paresthesias occur 5 to 30 min after eating. Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps then develop, followed by muscle weakness. Untreated respiratory paralysis may be fatal; for survivors, recovery is usually complete.[merckmanuals.com]
Dizziness
  • Severe poisoning can result in dizziness, numbness and paralysis.[foodpoisonjournal.com]
  • If you experience difficulty breathing, swollen lips or tongue, dizziness, fainting, a feeling of impending doom or a rapid pulse after eating mussels, MayoClinic.com advises calling 911.[livestrong.com]
  • These include headache, dizziness, disorientation, vision disturbances, loss of short-term memory, motor weakness, seizures, profuse respiratory secretions, hiccups, unstable blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmia and coma.[mpi.govt.nz]
  • Other reported symptoms have included dizziness, headache, disorientation, and permanent or short-term memory loss. In severe poisoning cases, seizures, focal weakness or paralysis, and death may occur.[articles.extension.org]
  • Consumption of shellfish affected by PSP can cause numbness and tingling around the body, difficulty breathing, dizziness and - in severe cases - paralysis and respiratory failure.[radionz.co.nz]
Paresthesia
  • The most common symptoms, which started 1-2 hours after consumption of the mussels, were paresthesias, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, ataxia, weakness and a “floating sensation” that is said to be characteristic of PSP.[thepoisonreview.com]
  • Abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea last 6 to 17 h; then, pruritus, paresthesias, headache, myalgia, reversal of hot and cold sensation, and face pain may occur.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Notes Clinical illness defined as: neurological symptoms such as paresthesia and/or paralysis involving the mouth and extremities, which may be accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms.[bccdc.ca]
  • Neurologic: paresthesias, weakness, pain in the teeth or a sensation that the teeth are loose, burning or metallic taste in the mouth, generalized itching, sweating, and blurred vision.[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
  • Paresthesia often spreads to the neck and face and sometimes to the toes and fingertips. It may be followed by muscular weakness on the lower and upper limbs and on more serious cases, patients may also have ataxia, dysphagia and dysphonia.[healthguidance.org]
Vertigo
  • Karenia brevis, (brevetoxins) Clams, oysters, mussels, whelk Neurotoxic numbness/tingling of mouth and extremities; vertigo; slurred speech; muscle weakness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea; reversal of hot/cold sensations; pupil dilation Yes.[myfwc.com]
  • Further neurologic symptoms can include vertigo, ataxia, visual changes, and seizures.[emedicine.medscape.com]
Motor Symptoms
  • symptoms and deaths have occurred from the ingestion of cooked marine mussels.[journals.co.za]
Convulsions
  • Neurological symptoms reported include nervousness, dilated pupils, severe headache, numbness, tingling, hypersalivation, dyspnea, progressive muscular paralysis, convulsions, coma, and death.[emedicine.medscape.com]

Treatment

  • Shellfish Poisoning Treatment Follow these steps for someone with shellfish poisoning: Do not induce vomiting. Help the person stay well-hydrated. Encourage the person to drink frequent sips of clear fluids.[webmd.com]
  • Treatment is supportive care with attention to ventilatory assistance until the toxin is metabolized, which may take days. The toxin cannot be destroyed by cooking or freezing.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Treatment of ciguatera poisoning is primarily supportive.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Treatment Some experts advocate gastric emptying as an early treatment, while activated charcoal can block additional toxic absorption.[healthguidance.org]
  • Treatment for shellfish poisoning This often depends upon the species of shellfish and the type of toxin (or toxins). But it is important to remember that there are no specific treatments for these toxins.[medic8.com]

Prognosis

  • Shellfish Poisoning Prognosis In general, most outcomes, after the symptoms subside, are good. However, the outcomes worsen according to the amount and type of poison ingested.[emedicinehealth.com]
  • If the victim survives the attack for 12 hours, then the prognosis is good. The illness duration may happen for a few days, but muscular weakness may persist for weeks.[healthguidance.org]

Epidemiology

  • Outbreak Investigation Report Paola Katrina Ching, ab Ruth Alma Ramos, ab Vikki Carr de los Reyes, b Ma Nemia Sucaldito b and Enrique Tayag b a Field Epidemiology Training Program, National Epidemiology Center, Department of Health, Sta Cruz, Manila,[ojs.wpro.who.int]
  • The detection of toxin in epidemiologically linked food confirms the diagnosis. There is no antidote. Respiratory support is recommended.[bccdc.ca]
  • Louisa Castrodale, at the Department of Epidemiology, is the one who gets the call when they do.[adn.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

Prevention

  • Activated charcoal may also be administered to bind to any contaminated foods that haven't yet been digested. 1 Prevent ASP by avoiding consumption of affected shellfish.[journals.lww.com]
  • The overall death rate from ciguatera poisoning is Prevention Travelers can take the following precautions to prevent ciguatera fish poisoning: Avoid or limit consumption of reef fish. Never eat high-risk fish such as barracuda or moray eel.[wwwnc.cdc.gov]
  • Can food poisoning be prevented or avoided? The best way to prevent food poisoning is to always know what you are eating. The best way to always know what you are eating is to eat at home. You can better control food storage and preparation at home.[familydoctor.org]
  • However, there is no prevention or cure for it, and it can't be detected by tests. Even a onetime episode of this type of reaction is cause for avoiding mussels in the future.[livestrong.com]
  • Prevention of Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning Check with local health officials before collecting shellfish. Do not eat shellfish sold as bait. Bait products do not need to meet the same food safety regulations as seafood for human consumption.[articles.extension.org]

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