Edit concept Question Editor Create issue ticket

Mustard Gas Exposure


Presentation

  • HRCT evidence of bronchial wall thickening and with a lower frequency ILD were present despite normal CXR in 20% of the patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present study characterizes lung cancers formed in mustard gas victims from the Iran-Iraq War.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Requirements You must be a Veteran who was discharged under conditions other than dishonorable You must have been exposed to mustard gas in one of the following ways: During field or chamber testing, OR During battlefield conditions in World War I, OR Present[benefits.va.gov]
  • Continuous variables are presented as the mean SD, whereas categorical data are presented as frequency distribution and percentages. Qualitative data were analyzed by using chi square test.[omicsonline.org]
  • Sulfur mustard exposure presenting to a community emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2012;59(1):70-74. Balali-Mood M, Hefazi M. The pharmacology, toxicology, and medical treatment of sulphur mustard poisoning.[centerforhealthsecurity.org]
Cough
  • All 23 patients were symptomatic with cough, dyspnea, and/or felt tight in the chest. All of them had significant air trapping in HRCT and a marked increase of residual volume in PFT.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Breathing sulfur mustard's can cause coughing, bronchitis, and other breathing symptoms. Exposure to very high levels can cause long-term respiratory disease or death.[thechangeofethics.weebly.com]
  • Mustard gas can burn skin, cause blisters and cause respiratory effects, such as coughing and bronchitis. Higher levels may cause death. It is also more harmful to the skin on hot, humid days, or in tropical climates.[foxnews.com]
  • This treatment alleviated dry cough but didn't cure the bronchial infection. For the most severe casualties, medics quarantined the affected patients and hoped for the best.[science.howstuffworks.com]
  • You may also need any of the following: Cool mist humidifier: This may make it easier for you to breathe and help decrease your cough. Eye drops or ointment: This may help decrease inflammation and help your eyes heal.[drugs.com]
Painful Cough
  • Patients with a mild exposure may present with dyspnea, epistaxis, pain, coughing, or tachypnea. 10,13 More serious exposures may result in bone marrow suppression and leukopenia, reaching its nadir at day 9 postexposure. 11,12 A cohort of Iranian soldiers[centerforhealthsecurity.org]
Choking
  • Verifying Destruction of Old and Abandoned Chemical Weapons Types of Chemical Agents Choking agents Inflicting injury mainly on the respiratory tract, choking agents irritate the nose, throat, and especially the lungs.[opcw.org]
  • Phosgene is a choking agent that works by attacking lung tissue. Initial likely symptoms of coughing, choking, tightness in the chest, nausea, and occasionally vomiting occur minutes after exposure.[nationalinterest.org]
  • Phosgene as a weapon was more potent than chlorine in that while the latter was potentially deadly it caused the victim to violently cough and choke.[firstworldwar.com]
  • Use as a Chemical Warfare Agent Before blister agents were introduced in 1917, most of the chemical weapons in use were choking agents-chlorine and phosgene gas-which necessitated the use of gas masks for respiratory protection.[centerforhealthsecurity.org]
Red Eye
  • Two adults, a three-year-old and a five-day-old baby arrived at MSF’s hospital one hour after the attack, and were reportedly suffering from "respiratory difficulties, inflamed skin, red eyes and conjunctivitis" and within three hours they "developed[mashable.com]
  • Tearing (100%) was more common in mild MGK, while itching (100%), red eye (100%), blurred vision (94.7%), and vision loss (47.4%) were more common in severe MGK.[omicsonline.org]
  • Signs and symptoms may begin 4 to 8 hours after you are exposed: Red, burning, or itching skin Blisters Burning or red eyes Sneezing, runny nose, or nosebleeds Sore throat, hoarseness, or coughing Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain Burning[drugs.com]
Corneal Opacity
  • opacities If you think you may be eligible for disability benefits on the basis of chemical exposure or other service-related disabilities, contact Jan Dils, Attorneys at Law, for a free consultation.[fight4vets.com]
  • Conditions considered presumptive for exposure to mustard gas or Lewisite are: Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia Chronic conjunctivitis, keratitis, corneal opacities, scar formation The following cancers: nasopharyngeal; laryngeal; lung (except mesothelioma[benefits.va.gov]
  • . • Severe: Presence of manifestations of the moderate form plus severe corneal involvement (melting, thinning, hyaline-like substance deposition, or diffuse corneal opacity) and any related operation such as amniotic membrane transplantation, lamellar[omicsonline.org]
Blepharospasm
  • Main clinical symptoms Few hours after the exposure Eyes: gritty feeling, progressive soreness and bloodshot appearance, lachrymation, blepharospasm and photophobia Increased nasal secretion, sneezing Sore throat, coughing, hoarseness and dyspnoea Lung[emro.who.int]
  • An asymptomatic period for the eyes is followed by redness and irritation which can progress to corneal damage with photophobia, blepharospasm , excessive lacrimation , and blindness [ 8 , 10 , 11 ].[omicsonline.org]
Epistaxis
  • Patients with a mild exposure may present with dyspnea, epistaxis, pain, coughing, or tachypnea. 10,13 More serious exposures may result in bone marrow suppression and leukopenia, reaching its nadir at day 9 postexposure. 11,12 A cohort of Iranian soldiers[centerforhealthsecurity.org]

Treatment

  • The final decision regarding which treatment is used for an individual patient remains the clinical responsibility of the prescriber.[medicinesinpregnancy.org]
  • As a result of the secret experiments, these veterans have been denied medical treatment and care. One such veteran is Arla Harrell who suffers from skin cancer, respiratory trouble, and permanent scarring.[jeffreyfreedman.com]
  • Posted at 3:49 pm September 13, 2011, in Awards & Achievements, Research Highlights Rutgers University and Robert Wood Johnson Medical School Receive 23 Million Grant from NIH to Develop Treatments for Chemical Weapons Attacks The National Institutes[eohsi.rutgers.edu]
  • The Army will assist Veterans in obtaining medical care through military treatment facilities. Eligible Veterans are encouraged to visit the U.S.[benefits.va.gov]
  • […] undersecretary at the VA under former President Barack Obama, he believes that the VA will work best for veterans by combining the best of what the agency does, in areas like traumatic brain injury and catastrophic injury, while covering veterans who get medical treatment[military.com]

Etiology

  • RESULTS: A relatively early age of lung cancer onset (ranging from 28 to 73 with a mean of 48) in mustard gas victims, particularly those in the non-smoking population (mean age of 40.7), may be an indication of a unique etiology for these cancers.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • Internal Medicine , Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University , Hiroshima , Japan 2 Department of Respiratory Medicine , Mazda Hospital , Hiroshima , Japan 3 Tadanoumi Branch Hospital , Kure Kyosai Hospital , Takehara , Japan 4 Department of Epidemiology[oem.bmj.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • Preincubation of cells with a serine protease inhibitor (PMSF), or a metalloprotease inhibitor (1,10-phenanthroline) prior to SM exposure partially prevented SM-induced degradation of laminin-5 subunits, beta3 and gamma2.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • “This is critical to preventing serious injury and death from any such attack.”[eohsi.rutgers.edu]
  • Sciences, Hiroshima University , Hiroshima , Japan 2 Department of Respiratory Medicine , Mazda Hospital , Hiroshima , Japan 3 Tadanoumi Branch Hospital , Kure Kyosai Hospital , Takehara , Japan 4 Department of Epidemiology , Infectious Disease Control and Prevention[oem.bmj.com]
  • We had clothing we were to test to see that they would prevent mustard gas from getting on our skin," Johnson said. Looking back 71 years later, Johnson said he did not think of the long-term consequences of the tests, effects that haunt him today.[al.com]
  • US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry website. . Accessed February 26, 2014. Ali J. Chemical weapons and the Iran-Iraq War: a case study in noncompliance.[centerforhealthsecurity.org]

Ask Question

5000 Characters left Format the text using: # Heading, **bold**, _italic_. HTML code is not allowed.
By publishing this question you agree to the TOS and Privacy policy.
• Use a precise title for your question.
• Ask a specific question and provide age, sex, symptoms, type and duration of treatment.
• Respect your own and other people's privacy, never post full names or contact information.
• Inappropriate questions will be deleted.
• In urgent cases contact a physician, visit a hospital or call an emergency service!