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Mustard Gas Poisoning

Poisoning by Mustard Gas


Presentation

  • Continuous variables are presented as the mean SD, whereas categorical data are presented as frequency distribution and percentages. Qualitative data were analyzed by using chi square test.[omicsonline.org]
  • Sulfur mustard exposure presenting to a community emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2012;59(1):70-74. Balali-Mood M, Hefazi M. The pharmacology, toxicology, and medical treatment of sulphur mustard poisoning.[centerforhealthsecurity.org]
  • On section of the upper lobe a moist pink surface presents medially. Posteriorly a pinkish-red surface presents. There is a small amount of thin frothy fluid in the air sacs.[vlib.us]
  • He was present when an Iranian guard opened a shell which released mustard gas. He died on 16 January 2011. The effects of mustard gas can take up to 40 years to prove fatal, the inquest at Wycombe Law Courts, Buckinghamshire, heard.[telegraph.co.uk]
  • The University of Houston's College of Engineering presents this series about the machines that make our civilization run, and the people whose ingenuity created them.[uh.edu]
Asymptomatic
  • An asymptomatic period for the eyes is followed by redness and irritation which can progress to corneal damage with photophobia, blepharospasm , excessive lacrimation , and blindness [ 8 , 10 , 11 ].[omicsonline.org]
Cough
  • This treatment alleviated dry cough but didn't cure the bronchial infection. For the most severe casualties, medics quarantined the affected patients and hoped for the best.[science.howstuffworks.com]
  • Exposure to chloramine gases can cause the following symptoms: Coughing. Nausea. Shortness of breath. Watery eyes. Chest pain. Irritation to the throat, nose, and eyes. Wheezing. Pneumonia and fluid in the lungs.[doh.wa.gov]
  • At lower concentrations, it can cause coughing, vomiting, and irritation to the eyes. In its first uses, chlorine was deadly.[compoundchem.com]
  • Because mustard gas strips away the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and respiratory tract, victims may also experience irritation of the eyes, temporary blindness, runny nose, cough, shortness of breath and sinus pain.[livescience.com]
  • Soldiers who inhaled it took weeks to die painfully, coughing up blood. With its garlicky smell and yellow pallor, “mustard gas” became infamous to troops as the “king of the war gases.”[timeline.com]
Dyspnea
  • Patients with a mild exposure may present with dyspnea, epistaxis, pain, coughing, or tachypnea. 10,13 More serious exposures may result in bone marrow suppression and leukopenia, reaching its nadir at day 9 postexposure. 11,12 A cohort of Iranian soldiers[centerforhealthsecurity.org]
  • Signs and Symptoms of Mustard Gas Exposure: Signs and symptoms of acute exposure to mustard gas may include dyspnea (difficult or labored breathing), cough, fever, headache, severe eye irritation, photophobia (sensitivity to light), lacrimation (tearing[cameochemicals.noaa.gov]
  • Face badly burned; eyelids edematous; slight cyanosis and dyspnea; rattle of moisture in trachea and bronchi; pulse 120. Chest: Good resonance, bronchial and tracheal rales. Heart: Cardiac dullness within normal limits.[vlib.us]
Rales
  • Lungs: Moist rales throughout. Summary of gross lesions. - Large blebs over back, chest, arms, face, and genitals. Few old adhesions in right pleura, left negative.[vlib.us]
Aspiration
  • Skin blisters may be aspirated and the fluid obtained analysed for thiodiglycol. (Thiodiglycol is a Chemical Weapons Convention schedule 2 chemical used in the production of sulfurbased blister agents such as mustard gas.[slideshare.net]
Thrombosis
  • Heparin has been used to prevent deep venous thrombosis. A single large dose of methyl prednisolone (2 g) may prevent general tissue damage. Administration of Vitamins C, B12 and folate may be of use.[slideshare.net]
  • There is no marked hyperaemia; no thrombosis and no striking alteration of the vascular endothelium.[vlib.us]
Blurred Vision
  • Nerve agents in the eye may cause miosis , conjunctival infection, pain in or around the eye, as well as dim or blurred vision (or both) [ 3 ].[omicsonline.org]
  • Earliest symptoms include burning pain, a feeling that something is in the eye, sensitivity to light, tearing, and blurred vision. Permanent corneal scarring and blindness may occur with severe exposures, but is rare.[emedicinehealth.com]
  • Mustard gas also causes conjunctivitis, swollen eyelids and blurred vision. Inhalation of the chemical causes coughing and troubled breathing due to destruction of tissue in the respiratory system.[nytimes.com]
  • During or immediately after exposure to dangerous concentrations of phosgene, the following signs and symptoms may develop: Coughing Burning sensation in the throat and eyes Watery eyes Blurred vision Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath Nausea[flipper.diff.org]
Red Eye
  • Tearing (100%) was more common in mild MGK, while itching (100%), red eye (100%), blurred vision (94.7%), and vision loss (47.4%) were more common in severe MGK.[omicsonline.org]
  • Signs and symptoms may begin 4 to 8 hours after you are exposed: Red, burning, or itching skin Blisters Burning or red eyes Sneezing, runny nose, or nosebleeds Sore throat, hoarseness, or coughing Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain Burning[drugs.com]
  • The three-year-old girl and a five-day-old baby girl along with their parents arrived at a Doctors Without Borders hospital one hour after the attack, suffering from respiratory difficulties, inflamed skin, red eyes, and conjunctivitis.[foxnews.com]
  • Exposure to even a small amount of vapor usually results in at least one of the following categories of symptoms: (1) in the eyes, blurred vision, eye pain , red eyes; (2) runny nose; or (3) difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, excessive productive[emedicinehealth.com]
Corneal Opacity
  • . • Severe: Presence of manifestations of the moderate form plus severe corneal involvement (melting, thinning, hyaline-like substance deposition, or diffuse corneal opacity) and any related operation such as amniotic membrane transplantation, lamellar[omicsonline.org]
Foreign Body Sensation
  • . • Without clinical evidence (WCE): Presence of photophobia, foreign body sensation, burning, itching, lacrimation, redness, and dryness such that MGK is considered to be unlikely. • Mild: The WCE symptoms plus conjunctival disturbances including micro-aneurysm[omicsonline.org]

Treatment

  • […] as well as bone marrow transplantation have been recommended for treatment of aplastic anaemia.[slideshare.net]
  • Medical history, symptoms, ocular conditions, clinical course, and treatment measures were reviewed. Statistical analysis was accomplished using SPSS/18, Chi-square test.[omicsonline.org]
  • Image: Public Domain, Canada [Source: Mustard Gas From The Great War To Frontline Chemotherapy , Evolution of Cancer Treatments ][io9.gizmodo.com]
  • The future is changing And so mustard gas went from the very real battleground of the WWI trenches into the frontline of cancer treatment. But for J.D, the treatment came too late.[scienceblog.cancerresearchuk.org]
  • Treatment of Mustard Gas Burns – published in the BMJ in 1946 Nightmare in Bari surgical treatment of Sulfur Mustard Burns UK Ministry of Defence Report on disposal of weapons at sea and incidents arising Rhydymwyn Valley History Society The advent of[en.wikipedia.org]

Prognosis

  • Marked leucopenia is a sign of sinister prognosis, leading to overwhelming infection and multiple organ failure and death. Acute: Early leukocytosis, followed by mild leucopenia.[slideshare.net]
  • Mustards Prognosis Victims with significant respiratory tract burns usually require admission to the hospital’s intensive care unit.[emedicinehealth.com]

Epidemiology

  • A chart of signs and symptoms is available from the North Carolina Statewide Program for Infection Control and Epidemiology.[emedicinehealth.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • . • • • • • Numerous other supportive measures were used in treating casualties from the Iran-Iraq war: H2 antagonists to prevent stress ulceration. Heparin has been used to prevent deep venous thrombosis.[slideshare.net]
  • US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry website. . Accessed February 26, 2014. Ali J. Chemical weapons and the Iran-Iraq War: a case study in noncompliance.[centerforhealthsecurity.org]
  • In addition, the rapid deployment of gas masks offered an effective prevention strategy.[thedailybeast.com]
  • Decontamination after the first few minutes of exposure does not prevent further damage later but at least prevents spread of the chemical to other parts of the body and protects emergency care personnel from further contact exposure.[emedicinehealth.com]
  • CHLORINE POISONING TODAY Used to prevent the growth of bacteria, chlorine is used as a disinfectant, commercial and industrial, most commonly in swimming pools and water treatment plants.[flipper.diff.org]

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