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Mycobacterium Kansasii


Presentation

  • This case illustrates the importance of anatomical knowledge in reaching a diagnosis, and also presents the first reported case of Mycobacterium kansasii creating this clinical picture.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fatigue
  • Commonly reported symptoms include fever, chills, night sweats, productive or nonproductive cough, weight loss, fatigue, dyspnea, and chest pain.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Breathing problems and fever are two common symptoms of M. kansasii disease, along with night sweats, chills, weight loss, muscle wasting, abdominal pain, fatigue (often caused by anemia), and diarrhea.[poz.com]
  • Case 2: A 33-year-old woman visited our hospital complaining of productive cough and general fatigue. She had no underlying diseases and no smoking history. There were no abnormal physical findings on admission.[scirp.org]
  • However, most have a combination of respiratory and systemic features similar to tuberculosis ; chronic cough shortness of breath on exertion hemoptysis low-grade fever night sweats fatigue weight loss As with M. tuberculosis NTMs commonly cause pulmonary[radiopaedia.org]
  • He reported fatigue, night sweats, bilateral knee pain, and a rash on his back and chest. Two months prior to this admission, the patient developed acute onset of nonproductive cough associated with generalized weakness and muscle pain.[cureus.com]
Malaise
  • A 32-year-old immunocompetent man developed fever and malaise that persisted for three years. As he had no health insurance, he never received any medical treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 60-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of general malaise for a few months, discomfort of the right shoulder and fever in May 2003.[ci.nii.ac.jp]
  • The most common symptoms were dyspnea (39% of patients), cough (33%), malaise (33%), fever (28%), weight loss (17%), sputum production (11%), and chest pain (6%).[academic.oup.com]
  • Symptoms No typical Manifestations• Fever• Weight loss• Enlarged lymph glands• Diarrhea• Sweating, excessive -- night sweats• Fatigue• General discomfort, uneasiness or ill feeling (malaise)• Cough• Shortness of breath (dyspnea)• Skin lesions• Joint pain[slideshare.net]
Exposure to Contaminated Water
  • This case emphasizes the possibility that cutaneous M. kansasii infection may occur in an immunocompromised patient and that exposure to contaminated water is a possible source.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Intermittent Fever
  • The patient was admitted with a 2-month history of intermittent fever and myalgia, treated with oral prednisolone and mycophenolate mofetil prior to admission.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Collapse
  • Few hours after admission, the patient suddenly collapsed and died despite resuscitation efforts.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Abdominal Pain
  • Breathing problems and fever are two common symptoms of M. kansasii disease, along with night sweats, chills, weight loss, muscle wasting, abdominal pain, fatigue (often caused by anemia), and diarrhea.[poz.com]
Right Upper Quadrant Pain
  • A 60-year-old woman, who presented with fever, chills, anorexia, and right upper quadrant pain, was admitted to our hospital. Hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, elevated liver aminotransferases, and hyperferritinemia were noted after admission.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • The patient underwent further serological workup and this revealed neutrophilia but no leukocytosis, HIV serology was negative and Quantiferon gold test was indeterminate. Sputum culture and blind bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) grew oronasal flora.[shmabstracts.com]
  • However, a thorough workup for immunodeficiencies was not obtained.[cureus.com]
  • Treatment against pulmonary TB should be instituted without delay when TB is suspected, even before the complete workup is available.[ijmm.org]
Pericardial Effusion
  • Abstract Pericardial effusion has been reported to occur in up to 38% of patients with AIDS. Many different etiologies for pericarditis have been described.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Granulomatous Tissue
  • An excisional biopsy revealed granulomatous tissue, thought to be secondary to her sarcoidosis. Her right hand pain recurred and the revision surgery resulted in a non‐healing surgical wound.[shmabstracts.com]
Liver Biopsy
  • Bone marrow and liver biopsies showed non-caseating granulomatosis and cultures from bone marrow and liver all yielded Mycobacterium kansasii. The patient responded well to azithromycin, isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

Prognosis

  • The prognosis of Mycobacterium kansasii pulmonary disease is reported to be relatively good among non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis, however, physicians must pay careful attention to cases of delayed start of therapy or multidrug resistance, or both.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Etiology

  • Many different etiologies for pericarditis have been described. In some instances, such infections have caused severe hemodynamic complications and life-threatening conditions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Discussion: Our study indicates that M. kansasii is the primary etiology of NTM pulmonary disease in HIV-negative patients in our service area in Buenos Aires.[ir.library.louisville.edu]
  • Mycobacterium kansasii a slow-growing, photochromogenic species that is the etiologic agent of a tuberculosis-like disease and is often isolated from lung secretions or tubercles; the incidence of infection is sharply increased among immunocompromised[medicine.academic.ru]

Epidemiology

  • Abstract The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 17 patients diagnosed with Mycobacterium kansasii pneumonia within a limited geographical region over a period of 10 years are described.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Pathophysiology and progression of nasal septal perforation . Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, Vol. 99, Issue. 6, p. 473.[journals.cambridge.org]
  • Although the pathogenesis has not been clarified, animal studies implicate the role of anti-MPO antibodies in the pathophysiology of the disease via neutrophil activation [4] .[cureus.com]
  • In conclusion, there are some clues about an association of skin infections with IgA-deficiency, although no clear pathophysiological link may be provided [ 11 – 13 ].[bmcdermatol.biomedcentral.com]
  • […] has been proposed based on isolation in stool from up to one third of infected patients.10 The differences in the frequency of involved organs with M kansasii and MAC when infection is present, however, suggest that such a correlation may not have a pathophysiologic[archivesofpathology.org]

Prevention

  • Early identification of the species and prompt initiation of treatment for M. kansasii is necessary to prevent morbidity and mortality due to this disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • How is it prevented? It is very difficult to prevent coming into contact with M. kansasii. However, taking potent HIV treatment and keeping CD4 counts at least above 100 can help prevent the disease.[poz.com]

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