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Mycoplasma Encephalitis


Presentation

  • We report the case of a 12-year-old patient who presented with acute onset of orofacial tics, motor restlessness, compulsive behavior, and cerebellar symptoms. Cerebrospinal fluid examination demonstrated lymphocytic meningitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • An 11-year-old boy presented with a new onset seizure.[neurology.org]
  • The available literature regarding this subject is also presented.[content.iospress.com]
  • Patients with M. pneumoniae-associated encephalitis are predominantly pediatric, and their presentations are clinically similar to enterovirus encephalitis, although they frequently require intensive care with prolonged hospitalizations.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Patients with M pneumoniae –associated encephalitis are predominantly pediatric, and their presentations are clinically similar to enterovirus encephalitis, although they frequently require intensive care with prolonged hospitalizations.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]
Hypersomnia
  • Sugeno N, Kawaguchi N, Hasegawa T, Kuroda T, Nakashima I, et al. (2012) A case with anti-galactocerebroside antibody-positive Mycoplasma pneumoniae meningoencephalitis presenting secondary hypersomnia. Neurol Sci 33: 1473–1476.[journals.plos.org]
Movement Disorder
  • Truong, MD, Head, The Parkinson's and Movement Disorders Institute, Orange Coast Memorial Medical Center, Fountain Valley, California, USA William Carroll, MD, Head, Department of Neurology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia,[books.google.de]
Blurred Vision
  • The clinical manifestations included fever (94%), altered consciousness (65%), seizure (41%), personality or behavior changes (29%), meningeal sign (24%), visual hallucination (24%), ataxia (12%), Guillain-Barré syndrome (6%), blurred vision (6%), and[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Motor Restlessness
  • We report the case of a 12-year-old patient who presented with acute onset of orofacial tics, motor restlessness, compulsive behavior, and cerebellar symptoms. Cerebrospinal fluid examination demonstrated lymphocytic meningitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Suggestibility
  • The relapsing course of this patient, along with a review of prior reported cases, suggests that corticosteroids may be beneficial for mycoplasma encephalitis, that moderate doses may be sufficient, and that consideration should be given to a prolonged[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Thirty children (18.9%) who were seropositive for M. pneumoniae but did not have the organism detected by culture or PCR had convincing evidence implicating other organisms as the cause of encephalitis, suggesting that current serologic assays for M.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This novel case points to the potential value of gamma-globulin in M. pneumoniae encephalitis confirmed with polymerase chain reaction and suggests that immediate administration of intravenous gamma-globulin in suspected mycoplasma encephalitis should[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain was suggestive of hemorrhagic encephalitis. The CSF specimen tested by polymerase chain reaction to amplify a 345 base pair region on the P1 adhesin gene of M. pneumoniae was negative.[ijmm.org]
  • Help them by suggesting more appropriate tests,” she suggested.[aacc.org]
Compulsive Behavior
  • We report the case of a 12-year-old patient who presented with acute onset of orofacial tics, motor restlessness, compulsive behavior, and cerebellar symptoms. Cerebrospinal fluid examination demonstrated lymphocytic meningitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • PANDAS (Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infection) is a disease that results in psychiatric symptoms, including obsessive-compulsive behaviors, that is triggered by a strep infection.[aealliance.org]
Visual Hallucination
  • The clinical manifestations included fever (94%), altered consciousness (65%), seizure (41%), personality or behavior changes (29%), meningeal sign (24%), visual hallucination (24%), ataxia (12%), Guillain-Barré syndrome (6%), blurred vision (6%), and[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dysarthria
  • Although these six patients completely recovered without sequela, dysarthria persisted in one patient with MERS and cerebellar lesions. Mild intellectual impairment persisted in one patient with limbic encephalitis.[ci.nii.ac.jp]

Workup

  • The routine diagnostic workup of M. pneumoniae encephalitis should therefore aim for the detection of M. pneumoniae antibodies in both CSF and serum, in addition to M. pneumoniae PCR in CSF.[journals.plos.org]
  • Workup should include a thorough history and physical exam to determine if the clinical course could be consistent with AE.[aealliance.org]

Treatment

  • Treatment with corticosteroids has been proposed for this illness, but experience with this therapy is limited to case reports and small series; neither efficacy nor appropriate courses of treatment are well established.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Control 163 5 Vaccines 164 6 Political Issues 165 7 Ethics 166 References 167 RSV and Influenza Treatment and Prevention 169 14 Surfactant 170 17 Antiviral Treatment 171 22 Amantadine 172 25 Cold Adapted Influenza Vaccine CAIV 173 References 174 EncephalitisBeyond[books.google.de]
  • Supportive treatment is the basis of management.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This case emphasizes the importance of CNS complications of M. pneumoniae and shows that corticosteroid therapy has a place for treatment of mycoplasma encephalitis. The available literature regarding this subject is also presented.[content.iospress.com]
  • View Article Google Scholar 39. van Doorn PA, Ruts L, Jacobs BC (2008) Clinical features, pathogenesis, and treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Lancet Neurol 7: 939–950. View Article Google Scholar 40.[journals.plos.org]

Prognosis

  • FLAIR : hyperintense DWI : hyperintense ADC: hypointense T1 C (Gd) : linear cranial nerve enhancement ring enhancement (abscess) heterogeneous if extensive inflammation MR spectroscopy : allows differentiation between abscess from tumor Treatment and prognosis[radiopaedia.org]
  • In addition, even experienced physicians often are uncertain about the cause, appropriate therapy, and prognosis.[pedsinreview.aappublications.org]
  • Prognosis and outcomes of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. A meta-analysis. JAMA 1996; 275: 134-141. Foy HM, Kenny GE, McMahan R, Kaiser G, Grayston JT. Mycoplasma pneumoniae in the community. Am J Epidemiol 1971; 93:55-67.[lci.rivm.nl]
  • Daxboeck F, Blacky A, Seidl R, Krause R, Assadian O (2004) Diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae childhood encephalitis: systematic review of 58 cases. J Child Neurol 19: 865–871. View Article Google Scholar 26.[journals.plos.org]

Etiology

  • Abstract Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important etiologic agent of acute childhood encephalitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a common respiratory pathogen, has been implicated as an etiology of encephalitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A hasty—and faulty—etiological diagnosis of disturbed family interaction caused additional suffering in a situation in which worries were already overwhelming.[link.springer.com]
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae , a common respiratory pathogen, has been implicated as an etiology of encephalitis.[pediatrics.aappublications.org]

Epidemiology

  • 153 7 Conclusion 154 Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Epidemiology and Treatment 155 13 Maternal Age 156 2 Therapeutic Interventions 157 3 Summary 158 References 159 Global Control of Rotavirus Disease 161 3 Epidemiology 162 4 Approaches to Disease[books.google.de]
  • Epidemiology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in the British Isles, 1974—9. J Infect 1980; 2:191-194. Ramirez JA, Ahkee S, Tolentino A, Miller RD, Summersgill JT.[lci.rivm.nl]
  • Epidemiology Annual summary of respiratory Mycoplasma pneumoniae laboratory surveillance data England and Wales 2018 ( PDF, 467KB, 10 pages ) Laboratory reports of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection made to CIDSC from PHE and NHS laboratories in England[gov.uk]
  • (Offers an excellent overview of the current knowledge of epidemiology and treatment in children.) Atkinson, TP, Balish, MF, Waites, KB. “Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis and laboratory detection of infections”.[clinicaladvisor.com]
  • Michelow IC, Olsen K, Lozano J, Rollins NK, Duffy LB, et al. (2004) Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized children. Pediatrics 113: 701–707. View Article Google Scholar 5.[journals.plos.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • 221 3 Vaccine Formulation 222 4 Immunological Memory 224 5 Carriage 225 7 Immunologies Issues in PracticeThe UK Experience 226 8 Conclusion 228 Strategies for Preventing Group B Streptococcal Disease 231 3 Tackling GBS Disease 232 4 Treatment or Prevention[books.google.de]
  • Succinct, targeted coverage of normal childhood growth and development, as well as the diagnosis, management, and prevention of common pediatric diseases and disorders, make this an ideal medical reference book for students, pediatric residents, nurse[books.google.de]
  • Prevention Exclusion from childcare, preschool, school or work is not necessary no vaccine is currently available cover a cough or sneeze with a tissue or your arm, not with your hand.[sahealth.sa.gov.au]
  • Preventing encephalitis It's not always possible to prevent encephalitis, but some of the infections that cause it can be prevented with vaccinations.[nhs.uk]
  • Prevention Vaccine is not available at the moment.[chp.gov.hk]

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