Edit concept Question Editor Create issue ticket

Mycoplasma Pneumonia

Primary Atypical Pneumonia (pap) Due to Mycoplasma


Presentation

  • Mycoplasma pneumonia (MP), for instance, can be present in different joint pathologies. The aim of the present study is to correlate pathognomonic imaging of the TMJ in nuclear magnetic resonance with laboratory tests for MP.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Although there is no pathognomonic clinical or radiographic presentation, careful consideration of epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory, and radiographic data are usually sufficient to suggest the diagnosis in most patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Bilateral peribronchial and perivascular interstitial infiltrates were most frequently seen in the present patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Herein, we report a seven-yr-old girl who presented with a Mycoplasma pneumonia infection that progressed to SJS five months after liver transplant.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present report summarizes the feature of eight children admitted for a moderately severe pneumonia during an epidemic of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Victoria. All children were previously healthy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fever
  • Interleukin-6 serum levels in mycoplasma pneumonia patients with fever for more than 3 days (41.98 /- 67.46 [SD] pg/mL) were significantly higher than those in patients with fever or 3 days (10.01 /- 11.74 pg/mL, p 0.05).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The diagnosis is suspected when the patient presents with symptoms suggesting primary atypical pneumonia including cough, fever, chills, headache, and malaise in association with a segmental or subsegmental pulmonary infiltrate(s), the white blood cell[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In contrast, most of the patients under 20 years of age developed fever/respiratory symptoms before mucocutaneous involvement.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Three young children with Down syndrome developed fever, cough, wheezing, irritability, and tachypnea. They had bilateral infiltrates on their chest radiographs and developed respiratory distress, which required their hospitalization.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The usual presenting symptoms included cough, fever, lethargy, and weight loss. All children had moderately severe respiratory distress and physical signs in the chest consistent with extensive parenchymal involvement.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Anemia
  • This case demonstrates that, even in patients with clinically mild pneumonia, M. pneumoniae may be the cause of severe anemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Simultaneous occurrence of cold agglutinin hemolytic anemia and central nervous system disease due to Mycoplasma pneumonia is extremely rare.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • M. pneumoniae pneumonia can occur in association with other diseases including sickle cell anemia, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Hodgkin's disease, and various other immunodeficiency states.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Mycoplasma atypical pneumonia can be complicated by Stevens–Johnson syndrome, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, cardiovascular diseases, encephalitis, or Guillain–Barré syndrome.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] in smokers and patients with chronic lung disease grows on charcoal yeast extract agar buffered with cysteine and iron Treatment Medical macrolide antibiotics (especially Azithromycin) doxycycline fluoroquinolones Complications Autoimmune hemoltyic anemia[step1.medbullets.com]
Malaise
  • The diagnosis is suspected when the patient presents with symptoms suggesting primary atypical pneumonia including cough, fever, chills, headache, and malaise in association with a segmental or subsegmental pulmonary infiltrate(s), the white blood cell[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clinical findings Incubation 3 weeks; insidious onset of fever, malaise, headache, myalgia, low-grade fever, cough, chest pain and respiratory disease, from asymptomatic to rhinitis, pharyngitis, tracheobronchitis and pneumonia.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Tabs Content Clinical Overview Diagnosis Indications for Testing Mild illness consisting of upper or lower respiratory illness with gradual onset of Malaise Fever Headache Sore throat Persistent cough Atypical pneumonia appearance on chest x-ray (patchy[arupconsult.com]
  • The majority of patients present with upper respiratory tract symptoms, which may include fever, cough, sore throat, malaise and headache. Only 5 – 10% of infected patients develop atypical pneumonia.[chp.gov.hk]
Fatigue
  • Mycoplasma have been linked with several chronic diseases, including chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia syndrome, gulf war syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis.[bacmap.wishartlab.com]
  • Symptoms might include a bothersome and long-lasting cough (this is most common), fatigue, sore throat, hoarseness, low-grade fever, headache, loss of appetite, chest pain, and, less commonly, a bumpy red skin rash.[kidshealth.org]
  • Some common symptoms of mycoplasma pneumonia include: A cough (either it is a dry cough or it produces just a small amount of clear sputum -- if there is color in the sputum, it often happens later) Headache Sore throat A general feeling of fatigue Low-grade[bacteria.emedtv.com]
  • Cough, sore throat, fever, and fatigue are common symptoms. Many people will have only mild infection and will recover on their own. However, about 10% of school-age children will develop pneumonia and may need treatment with antibiotics.[intermountainhealthcare.org]
  • They more commonly have low-grade fever, dry cough, mild shortness of breath especially with exertion , and fatigue . Learn more: Pneumonia » The Mycoplasma pneumonia bacterium is one of the most recognized of all human pathogens.[healthline.com]
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
  • Mycoplasma have been linked with several chronic diseases, including chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia syndrome, gulf war syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis.[bacmap.wishartlab.com]
Cough
  • The aim of this study was to clarify cough sensitivity in Mycoplasma pneumonia, which is a well known acute lower respiratory infection with persistent nonproductive cough.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Despite the high prevalence of coughs for many years, what causes them remains unknown.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The diagnosis is suspected when the patient presents with symptoms suggesting primary atypical pneumonia including cough, fever, chills, headache, and malaise in association with a segmental or subsegmental pulmonary infiltrate(s), the white blood cell[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Three young children with Down syndrome developed fever, cough, wheezing, irritability, and tachypnea. They had bilateral infiltrates on their chest radiographs and developed respiratory distress, which required their hospitalization.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There are many way to help prevent the spread of germs: Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue every time you cough or sneeze. Throw the used tissue in a waste basket.[bphc.org]
Pleural Effusion
  • The possibility of Mycoplasma pneumonia should not be dismissed merely because of the severity of the illness or the presence of pleural effusions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract An 11-year-old girl who presented with pneumonia, pleural effusion, hematuria, and red blood cell casts is described. Mycoplasma pneumoniae complement fixation titers were elevated.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Half of this group had radiological evidence of a small pleural effusion. Complement fixation titres for Mycoplasma pneumoniae in paired samples confirmed the diagnosis. Clinical and radiological resolution was complete after one to three months.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Interleukin-6 serum levels in those patients whose chest films revealed patchy consolidations or pleural effusion (58.11 /- 92.19 pg/mL) were significantly higher than those in patients whose chest films revealed peribronchial interstitial infiltration[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Other radiological features were bilateral lesions in 51% of patients, pleural effusion in 23%, and hilar lymphadenopathy in 13%. Means of duration for treatment response and hospitalization were 2.5 and 5 days, respectively.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Dry Cough
  • Although dry cough was observed in all patients during Mycoplasma pneumonia, cough sensitivity in the acute phase [capsaicin: 19.8 (GSEM, 0.214) microM, tartaric acid: 0.26 (GSEM, 0.356) M] were not enhanced compared with those in both control subjects[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A dry cough is the most common sign of infection. Untreated or severe cases can affect the brain, heart, peripheral nervous system, skin, and kidneys and cause hemolytic anemia . In rare cases, MP is fatal.[healthline.com]
  • A dry cough is the most common sign of infection. Untreated or severe cases can affect the brain, heart, peripheral nervous system, skin, and kidneys and cause hemolytic anemia. In rare cases, MP is fatal.[healthline.com]
  • Some common symptoms of mycoplasma pneumonia include: A cough (either it is a dry cough or it produces just a small amount of clear sputum -- if there is color in the sputum, it often happens later) Headache Sore throat A general feeling of fatigue Low-grade[bacteria.emedtv.com]
  • Some, or all, of the following symptoms may be present: A dry cough, which may last for several weeks. Sore throat Pains in the muscles and joints Headaches, which are often severe. A temperature which is slightly above normal.[irishhealth.com]
Productive Cough
  • cough Physical exam non-productive cough bilateral wheezing may be heard on auscultation macropapular or vesicular rash Imaging Chest radiography patchy or diffuse interstitial infiltrates chest radiograph often looks more severe than the patient’s actual[step1.medbullets.com]
  • Symptoms develop gradually over several days and include fever, non-productive cough, headache and myalgia. Often it is accompanied by pharyngitis, rhinitis, tracheobronchitis and otitis.[en.vircell.com]
  • The inactive cilia of the epithelium cells produce non-productive coughs, fever and sore throat. It also causes an immune repose monopolizing the immune systems but through antigenic variations it capable of avoiding being phagocytized.[web.uconn.edu]
  • Patients usually do not have severe shortness of breath , high fever, and a productive cough with MP. They more commonly have low-grade fever, dry cough, mild shortness of breath especially with exertion , and fatigue .[healthline.com]
Persistent Cough
  • These results suggest that ECP may work as a factor causing a persistent cough similar to asthma in children with Mycoplasma pneumonia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Tabs Content Clinical Overview Diagnosis Indications for Testing Mild illness consisting of upper or lower respiratory illness with gradual onset of Malaise Fever Headache Sore throat Persistent cough Atypical pneumonia appearance on chest x-ray (patchy[arupconsult.com]
  • Signs and symptoms include chest pain, persistent cough, fever and/or a sore throat. Complications are rare, but it is important to know the risks.[livestrong.com]
Chest Pain
  •  One group has acute onset of fever, cough, chest pain with segmental pneumonia  Other group has 1-4 week history of lethargy and SOB usually with interstitial disease  May have bullous myringitis  Cultures take 3 months so 4X rise in cold agglutinins[learningradiology.com]
  • […] symptoms in addition to severe pneumonia – usually prompts testing Rash, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome Hemolysis, secondary to IgM cold agglutinins Cardiac involvement including conduction disturbances, arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, and chest[arupconsult.com]
  • Clinical findings Incubation 3 weeks; insidious onset of fever, malaise, headache, myalgia, low-grade fever, cough, chest pain and respiratory disease, from asymptomatic to rhinitis, pharyngitis, tracheobronchitis and pneumonia.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • In two studies the presence of chest pain more than doubled the probability of M. pneumoniae .[cochrane.org]
Arthritis
  • Chronic Mycoplasma infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatological diseases.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Patient had history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on home oxygen, bronchiectasis, rheumatoid arthritis (on methotrexate and leflunomide), treated pulmonary tuberculosis and 30-pack-year smoking.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Chronic mycoplasma infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatological diseases.[globalrph.com]
  • Mycoplasma have been linked with several chronic diseases, including chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia syndrome, gulf war syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis.[bacmap.wishartlab.com]
  • They are thought to be autoimmune-mediated and include rashes, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, meningoencephalitis, hemolytic anemia, arthritis, and gastrointestinal symptoms.[pedclerk.bsd.uchicago.edu]
Myalgia
  • Clinical findings Incubation 3 weeks; insidious onset of fever, malaise, headache, myalgia, low-grade fever, cough, chest pain and respiratory disease, from asymptomatic to rhinitis, pharyngitis, tracheobronchitis and pneumonia.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • Symptoms develop gradually over several days and include fever, non-productive cough, headache and myalgia. Often it is accompanied by pharyngitis, rhinitis, tracheobronchitis and otitis.[en.vircell.com]
  • Clinical features are an initial nonproductive cough followed by the production of watery or mucoid sputum, fever, rhinorrhea, chest pain, and generalized myalgia.[histopathology-india.net]
  • Erythematous macropapular and vesicular rashes (25%), nonspecific myalgia, arthralgias and polyarthropathies (14%), cardiac, gastrointestinal, renal complications, and ears symptoms may also occur.[canada.ca]
Headache
  • The diagnosis is suspected when the patient presents with symptoms suggesting primary atypical pneumonia including cough, fever, chills, headache, and malaise in association with a segmental or subsegmental pulmonary infiltrate(s), the white blood cell[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Patients suffered from abrupt onset of headache, shaking chills, and severe malaise, followed by fever and cough. Only 2 % required hospitalization.[web.uconn.edu]
  • Headaches : find out what treatments are available. X-ray examination : is X-ray radiation dangerous? Antibiotics : find information about the different medicines for infections. Last updated 02.02.2014[netdoctor.co.uk]
  • Clinical findings Incubation 3 weeks; insidious onset of fever, malaise, headache, myalgia, low-grade fever, cough, chest pain and respiratory disease, from asymptomatic to rhinitis, pharyngitis, tracheobronchitis and pneumonia.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • A 24 year old Aboriginal male presented to a rural hospital in New South Wales, Australia with 24 hours of fever (39.3Â C), frontal headache, neck pain, vomiting and photophobia.[omicsonline.org]
Guillain-Barré Syndrome
  • Mycoplasma atypical pneumonia can be complicated by Stevens–Johnson syndrome, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, cardiovascular diseases, encephalitis, or GuillainBarré syndrome.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Samukawa M, Hamada Y, Kuwahara M, Takada K, Hirano M, et al. (2013) Clinical features in Guillain-Barré syndrome with anti-Gal-C antibody. J Neurol Sci 337: 55–60.[journals.plos.org]
  • […] respiratory distress syndrome Myocarditis with conduction disturbances and chest pain Encephalitis / meningitis Sinusitis Immunologically mediated syndromes Hemolysis/hemolytic anemia Skin rashes Erythema nodosum or erythema multiforme Thrombocytopenia Guillain-Barré[arupconsult.com]
  • Examples of these disorders include: arthritis , in which the joints become inflamed pericarditis, an inflammation of the pericardium that surrounds the heart Guillain-Barré syndrome , a neurological disorder that can lead to paralysis and death encephalitis[healthline.com]

Workup

  • The results of a full uveitis workup were negative for antinuclear antibody, rheumatoid factor, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, HLA-B27, angiotensin-converting enzyme, Lyme disease, syphilis, and B henselae .[jamanetwork.com]
  • The routine diagnostic workup of M. pneumoniae encephalitis should therefore aim for the detection of M. pneumoniae antibodies in both CSF and serum, in addition to M. pneumoniae PCR in CSF.[journals.plos.org]
Pulmonary Infiltrate
  • Pulmonary infiltrates visible on chest x-ray films may resemble those of bacterial or viral pneumonia and may persist for 3 weeks in untreated cases.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • In 1944, Eaton discovered that sputum and lung tissue from such cases contained an agent that could pass through 45 µm filters permeable to viruses but not bacteria and that caused focal pulmonary infiltrates in rodents ( Eaton et al 1944 ).[medlink.com]
  • When the infection progresses to involve the lower respiratory tract, atypical pneumonia with bilateral diffuse pulmonary infiltrates is most common.[clinicaladvisor.com]
Mediastinal Mass
  • Exploratory thoracotomy revealed a large mediastinal mass that was removed together with the right middle and lower lobes of the lung. The mass arose from the lung with an endobronchial element.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Mycoplasma Hominis
  • hominis/pneumoniae and Ureaplasma urealyticum negative control IgA, IgG, IgM 0.1 ml CI 2201-0101 G antibodies against Mycoplasma hominis IgG positive control IgG 0.1 ml CI 2202-0101 G antibodies against Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgG positive control IgG[euroimmun.com]
  • The ones you may have to worry about are: Mycoplasma pneumoniae Mycoplasma genitalium Mycoplasma hominis Ureaplasma urealyticum Ureaplasma parvum Mycoplasma pneumoniae This type causes lung infections.[webmd.com]
  • Mycoplasma hominis , Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections are less common than those seen with M. pneumoniae .[labtestsonline.org]
Complement Fixing Antibody
  • Abstract The sera of 30 patients with complement-fixing antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae (titres larger than or equal to 32) were treated with staphylococcal protein A. This procedure effectively removed 90 to 95% of the IgG antibodies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Method: Immunoenzymatic method for the semiquantitative determination of complement-fixing antibodies in human serum, using a disposable device applied on the Chorus and Chorus TRIO instruments.[diesse.it]
Pleural Effusion
  • The possibility of Mycoplasma pneumonia should not be dismissed merely because of the severity of the illness or the presence of pleural effusions.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract An 11-year-old girl who presented with pneumonia, pleural effusion, hematuria, and red blood cell casts is described. Mycoplasma pneumoniae complement fixation titers were elevated.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Half of this group had radiological evidence of a small pleural effusion. Complement fixation titres for Mycoplasma pneumoniae in paired samples confirmed the diagnosis. Clinical and radiological resolution was complete after one to three months.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Interleukin-6 serum levels in those patients whose chest films revealed patchy consolidations or pleural effusion (58.11 /- 92.19 pg/mL) were significantly higher than those in patients whose chest films revealed peribronchial interstitial infiltration[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Other radiological features were bilateral lesions in 51% of patients, pleural effusion in 23%, and hilar lymphadenopathy in 13%. Means of duration for treatment response and hospitalization were 2.5 and 5 days, respectively.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Treatment

  • Nine studies examined M. pneumoniae treatment in CA-LRTI secondary to M. pneumoniae, and 5 RCTs met criteria for meta-analysis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • , 2 probably because the efficacy of macrolides in the treatment of M. pneumoniae remains unclear and treatment recommendations, even in major textbooks, are variable. 4, 10 The available evidence is also conflicting.[doi.org]
  • From our results, we consider that roxithromycin is useful in the treatment of mycoplasma pneumonia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Successful ocular treatment was performed by intravitreal injection of Bevacizumab and laser photocoagulation. RESULTS: Visual acuity was unchanged 36 months after treatment. No further subretinal lesions were seen oculus uterque.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • After treatment of pneumonia, lupus anticoagulant was not detected and the activated partial thromboplastin time normalized. The Author(s) 2016.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Hypercytokinemia is a useful marker of disease activity and prognosis. Combined treatment with methylprednisolone and erythromycin was successful and led to a favorable outcome. Physicians should be aware of HPS as a complication in Mp infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment and prognosis Most patients recover well although a small proportion of patients may develop bronchiectasis in the affected region or Swyer James syndrome. Promoted articles (advertising)[radiopaedia.org]
  • Treatment and prognosis Most patients recover well although a small proportion of patients may develop bronchiectasis in the affected region or Swyer James syndrome . Promoted articles (advertising)[radiopaedia.org]
  • What Is the Prognosis? This infection often causes wheezing in children with asthma or reactive airways. Most people fully recover from this infection, even when antibiotics are not used. The death rate is quite low.[healthychildren.org]
  • What is the prognosis? The infection should pass within a week unless it causes pneumonia, in which case it will be present for several weeks.[netdoctor.co.uk]

Etiology

  • When young children with Down syndrome develop pneumonia, physicians should consider Mycoplasma pneumoniae as the possible etiologic agent.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • M. pneumoniae should be considered as an etiological agent in a delayed onset of ARDS after pneumonia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • AIMS: The presence of different types of bacteria in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is considered an etiological factor in TMJ pathologies. Mycoplasma pneumonia (MP), for instance, can be present in different joint pathologies.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • However, the negative predictive value of PCR from serum with regard to etiological diagnosis is low.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSION: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important etiology of CAP in children 5 years or younger. They had a longer length of hospitalization, higher inflammatory responses, and more complications, compared to children older than 5 years.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • Although there is no pathognomonic clinical or radiographic presentation, careful consideration of epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory, and radiographic data are usually sufficient to suggest the diagnosis in most patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the epidemiological relationship between Mycoplasma pneumonia (MP) and the subsequent development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are scant.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The aims of this study are to provide a nationwide surveillance of the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of community-acquired mycoplasma pneumonia (CAMP) in children in Taiwan.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In this regard, further studies are needed to clarify the reason for the so-called "hajj coughs", but epidemiological studies will be difficult to do until easier and more reliable methods become available for accurate diagnosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] and the lower respiratory tract. 6 , 7 Outbreaks of primary atypical pneumonia in families, schools and military training camps have been described by many investigators. 8 9 10 Jordan's 8 study of 25 families suggested that the family is an important epidemiologic[nejm.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • These increased immune responses may be associated with the pathophysiological mechanisms by which the Mycoplasma pneumoniae contribute to the development of wheeze during acute mycoplasma pneumonia. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a small bacterium transmitted via organism-containing droplets.[mayomedicallaboratories.com]
  • Mycoplasma also have unique use of the amino acid codon UGA, which they use as an additional codon for tryptophan, while other organisms use it as a stop codon.In sequencing these genomes researchers hope to increase understanding of the pathophysiology[bacmap.wishartlab.com]
  • Pathophysiology The organism responsible for mycoplasmal pneumonia, M pneumoniae, is a pleomorphic organism that, unlike bacteria, lacks a cell wall, and unlike viruses, does not need a host cell for replication.[emedicine.com]
  • It can trigger a series of pathophysiologic responses, which may cause respiratory tract symptoms (paroxysmal irritating cough, sore throat, sticky sputum, and/or purulent sputum) and various complications such as bronchial asthma, acute respiratory distress[nature.com]

Prevention

  • It is not known whether early therapy prevents dreaded complications. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Prevention Exclusion from childcare, preschool, school or work is not necessary no vaccine is currently available cover a cough or sneeze with a tissue or your arm, not with your hand.[sahealth.sa.gov.au]
  • Prevention Since M. pneumoniae infections are almost exclusively mild, preventative measures are not normally recommended as necessary. Back to Top[hps.scot.nhs.uk]
  • CONCLUSIONS: In order to prevent ocular sequelae in adult patients when M. pneumoniae infection is suspected, more intensive treatment may be needed in adult patients than in younger patients.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Ask Question

5000 Characters left Format the text using: # Heading, **bold**, _italic_. HTML code is not allowed.
By publishing this question you agree to the TOS and Privacy policy.
• Use a precise title for your question.
• Ask a specific question and provide age, sex, symptoms, type and duration of treatment.
• Respect your own and other people's privacy, never post full names or contact information.
• Inappropriate questions will be deleted.
• In urgent cases contact a physician, visit a hospital or call an emergency service!