Mild cases of myocarditis seldom produce any symptoms. In severe cases, the following symptoms are experienced:
If children are affected by myocarditis, then the following signs and symptoms are evident:
The following tests are employed for diagnosing the condition of myocarditis:
In several cases, myocarditis can resolve without treatment promoting complete recovery. However, many cases may demand an appropriate treatment plan which would primarily focus on correcting the underlying condition. The various treatment methods that are employed include :
Individuals who can successfully survive fulminant myocarditis usually have a favorable prognosis. It was observed that majority of the patients do well even without a transplant. The onset of left ventricular dysfunction is less severe in individuals with fulminant myocarditis. Individuals with mild symptoms, completely recover with no cardiac dysfunction . However, in patients suffering from giant cell myocarditis, 89% of them did not survive or had to undergo transplantation with median survival period of just 5.5 months after transplant .
Viral infections are the most common cause of myocarditis. The various pathogens that are known include parvovirus B19, coxsackievirus B, Epstein-Barr virus, adenovirus and echoviruses. Individuals with HIV/AIDS are also susceptible to develop the condition. In certain cases, bacterial and fungal agents can also cause myocarditis .
Underlying disease conditions such as inflammatory conditions, systemic lupus erythematosus and connective tissue diseases can also favor the development of myocarditis. In addition, certain medications such as antibiotics like penicillin, anti-seizure medications and illegal drugs can cause certain toxic reactions which can lead to inflammatory reactions in the myocardium of the heart.
The exact incidence of myocarditis is not known. From the available data, it has been estimated that the condition causes about 1 to 10 cases per 100,000 individuals. The median age of onset of the disease is about 42 years. It has also been estimated that, 5 to 20% of sudden death among young adults occurred due to onset of myocarditis. About 50% of individuals with HIV develop myocarditis as a secondary complication  .
The condition of myocarditis occurs due to response to an infection which causes the middle layers of the heart muscles to undergo inflammation. Such a type of disease can also strike healthy individuals and it may rapidly progress to arrhythmia and heart failure. Myocarditis can further be classified into the following 4 categories which include:
The following steps can to certain extent help in preventing the onset of myocarditis:
Myocarditis is also referred to as inflammatory cardiomyopathy. It may present with mild symptoms that resolve on their own seldom requiring treatment. However, in many cases it can also cause severe symptoms and devastating complications. This may occur when the pumping action of the heart weakens to such an extent that it is no longer capable of pumping blood to the rest of the body. In addition, clots can also develop which would in turn pave way for development of heart attack or stroke .