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Myoclonic Jerking

Myoclonus


Presentation

  • His family history was negative for movement disorders and seizures, and the child presented a normal neurological development and had no past history of neurological illness.[movementdisorders.org]
  • Presentation Of CaseA fifty-four-year-old man was brought to the hospital because of an episode of shaking.He had been well except for the presence of multiple neurofibromatosis since the age of fourteen years.[nejm.org]
  • The symptoms can vary in intensity and frequency, and may be localized to one body part or be present all over the body. Severe myoclonus can interfere with a person’s ability to walk, talk or eat.[innerbody.com]
  • These forms of myoclonus occur in healthy people and rarely present a problem. Other forms of myoclonus may occur because of a nervous system (neurological) disorder, such as epilepsy, a metabolic condition, or a reaction to a medication.[mayoclinic.org]
  • Other treatments may also improve other nervous system disorders that may be present during sleep in addition to myoclonus. These include barbiturates, phenytoin and primidone.[sleepassociation.org]
Scotoma
  • The visual aura of migraine preceding a headache can take a variety of forms but is typically in one visual field and contains positive phenomena such as flashes, arcs of lights (fortification spectra), specks, or flames and negative phenomena such as scotoma[epilepsydiagnosis.org]
Muscle Twitch
  • Examples include: Hiccups Sleep starts Shakes or spasms due to anxiety or exercise Infant muscle twitching during sleep or after a feeding Essential myoclonus Essential myoclonus occurs on its own, usually without other symptoms and without being related[mayoclinic.org]
  • twitching, such as leg twitching.[opiumabusetreatment.com]
  • In its simplest form, myoclonus consists of a muscle twitch followed by relaxation. In some cases, myoclonus begins in one region of the body and spreads to muscles in other areas.[cookchildrens.org]
  • The basics of myoclonus dictate that it is simply a muscle twitch followed by relaxation.[integrativehealthcare.org]
Tinnitus
  • […] may involve the scalp, face, and neck; hoarseness; absence of auricular lesions has been reported; progressive dementia; extensive frontal white matter change; myoclonus; ataxia; facial paralysis; tinnitus; hearing loss; hyperacusis; vertigo; dysgeusia[esanatos.com]
Myoclonic Jerking
  • JERKS, myoclonus (physical finding), myoclonus, myoclonus was seen, Myoclonic jerks, Jerk, Myoclonic, Jerks, Myoclonic, Myoclonic Jerk, Myoclonic Jerks, Myoclonus [Disease/Finding], myoclonic disorder, myoclonic jerking, involuntary muscle jerking, myoclonic[fpnotebook.com]
  • Local trauma, or other types of injury to the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves can lead to focal myoclonic jerks.[cmdg.org]
  • After administration of ibuprofen, body temperature dropped and myoclonic jerks completely disappeared.[movementdisorders.org]
  • If the disturbance persists, generalized myoclonic jerks and, ultimately, seizures may occur. Diagnosis of myoclonus is clinical. Testing is done based on clinically suspected causes.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Myoclonic jerks are severe with grand mal seizures.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Involuntary Movements
  • movement caused by muscle contraction (positive myoclonus) or atonia (negative myoclonus), often called “jerk,” “shake,” or “spasm” by patients and inexpert observers.[movementdisorders.org]
  • Involuntary movements compose a group of uncontrolled movements that may manifest as a tremor, tic, myoclonic jerk, chorea, athetosis, dystonia or hemiballism.[stanfordmedicine25.stanford.edu]
  • Scientists are seeking to understand the underlying biochemical basis of involuntary movements and to find the most effective treatment for myoclonus and other movement disorders.[ninds.nih.gov]
  • movements unassociated with loss of consciousness.”[medlink.com]
Gait Ataxia
  • Certain of these drugs may have side effects such as sleepiness, unsteady gait (ataxia), or lethargy, and patients and their families should be aware of these beforehand. Newer therapies have been suggested for very specific types of myoclonus.[rarediseases.org]
  • During the episodes the individual may have dysarthria, limb and gait ataxia and titubation (coarse tremor) of the head.[epilepsydiagnosis.org]

Workup

  • The awake EEG of patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizure may be normal; however, certain specific interictal EEG patterns can be distinctive of generalized epilepsy syndromes (see Workup).[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • The patient underwent a workup, including a complete blood cell count, metabolic profile, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and serum protein electrophoresis, and the results were all within normal limits.[jamanetwork.com]
  • In this article, the author details the historical aspects, nomenclature, classification, clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, diagnostic workup, differential diagnosis, and management of the various types of myoclonic seizure, paying particular[medlink.com]
Generalized Polyspikes
  • “Electrographically they were time locked with generalized polyspikes on the EEG record,” wrote the authors. “A seizure disorder of generalized myoclonic epilepsy was diagnosed and she was started on valproic acid (depakote).[neurologyadvisor.com]

Treatment

  • Site of origin for myoclonus can help guide treatment. For example, valproate, levetiracetam, and piracetam tend to be effective in cortical myoclonus but ineffective in other types of myoclonus.[merckmanuals.com]
  • […] the main line of treatment.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Botulinum toxin treatment of facial myoclonus in suspected Rasmussen encephalitis. Mov Disord. 2006;21:1500-2. Caviness JN. Treatment of Myoclonus. Neurotherapeutics. 2014;11(1):188-200. Caviness JN, Brown P.[bcm.edu]
  • Physiological myoclonus This type of myoclonus occurs in normal, healthy people and rarely needs treatment.[mayoclinic.org]
  • Treatment For Sleep Myoclonus Myoclonus on its own does not necessarily require any treatment, but if someone with myoclonus is exhibiting unaccountable symptoms of insomnia, it may be necessary to look into it further.[sleepassociation.org]

Prognosis

  • Myoclonus after cardiac arrest: pitfalls in diagnosis and prognosis. Anaesthesia. 2009 Aug;64(8):908-11. PMID: 19604197. [Free Full Text] Acharya JN. Post-hypoxic myoclonus: The good, the bad and the ugly.[lifeinthefastlane.com]
  • Long-term prognosis for symptomatic (secondarily) generalized epilepsies: a population-based study. Epilepsia. 2007;48(6):1128-32. Abraham A, Elena C, Melamed E, Djaldetti R. Successful treatment of truncal myoclonus.[rarediseases.org]
  • However, the prognosis for more simple forms of myoclonus in otherwise healthy individuals may be neutral, as the disease may cause few to no difficulties.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Complete a bedside mini-mental assessment. c) Assess hydration status. d) Estimate prognosis. Hours, days, weeks, months or years? A longer prognosis demands a more definitive change in treatment.[mywhatever.com]
  • They are clinical manifestations of numerous epileptic syndromes of different etiology, prognosis, and management.[medlink.com]

Etiology

  • The world’s foremost experts describe the phenotypes and subtypes of myoclonic epilepsies and the underlying molecular defects and summarize cutting-edge advances in molecular genetics that shed new light on the etiologies of these syndromes.[books.google.com]
  • Applicable To Drug-induced myoclonus Palatal myoclonus Use Additional Use Additional Help Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology.[icd10data.com]
  • [myo- G. klonos, tumult] myoclonus /my·oc·lo·nus/ ( mi-ok lo-nus ) shocklike contractions of a muscle or a group of muscles.myoclon ic essential myoclonus myoclonus of unknown etiology, involving one or more muscles and elicited by excitement or an attempt[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
  • The 2 main classification systems of myoclonus are based on etiology and physiology.[medlink.com]
  • Myoclonus can also be classified by etiology (the underlying cause), which is described in more detail below. Physiologic Myoclonus This type of myoclonus occurs in healthy people and rarely requires treatment.[bcm.edu]

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiology studies of periodic limb movements A high prevalence of periodic limb movements was found in elderly women according to an observational study from 2006 in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine.[tuck.com]
  • Prolonged use of hydroquinones has resulted in the development of the pigmented form of colloid milium, sometimes in association with ochronosis. [13] Epidemiology Frequency Colloid milium is rare, but more than 100 case reports are present in the world[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Overview Myoclonic seizures are sudden, brief, involuntary, single or multiple jerks that are isolated or rapidly repetitive and of variable topography and pathophysiology.[medlink.com]
  • The 4 variants are (1) an adult-onset type, (2) a nodular form (nodular colloid degeneration), [1] (3) a juvenile form, [2, 3] and (4) a pigmented form, thought to be due to excess hydroquinone use for skin bleaching. [4] Pathophysiology Colloid milium[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Pathophysiology and treatment of opioid-related myoclonus in cancer patients. Pain 1998; 74: 5-9. Smith M. Neuroexcitatory effects of morphine and hydromorphone: evidence implicating the 3-glucuronide metabolites.[mywhatever.com]
  • The nosology and pathophysiology of myoclonus. Mov Disord 1982:196–248. Google Scholar 2. Fahn S, Marsden CD, Van Woert MH. Definition and classification of myoclonus. Adv Neurol 1986; 43:1–5. PubMed Google Scholar 3. Nirenberg MJ, Frucht SJ.[link.springer.com]
  • Medications unrelated to opioids, such as anticholinergics, are known to cause myoclonic jerks. [9] Pathophysiology [ edit ] Most myoclonus is caused by a disturbance of the central nervous system. Some are from peripheral nervous system injury.[en.wikipedia.org]

Prevention

  • Twitching While Sleeping: Prevention and Treatment If you’re twitching while sleeping, and it’s because of PLMD or RLS, you may be prescribed medications to control your symptoms.[universityhealthnews.com]
  • Prevention Prevention will depend on the cause. References: Dalmau J, Rosenfeld MR. Paraneoplastic syndromes of the CNS. Lancet Neurology. 2008;7:327-340. Eberhardt O, Topka H. Myoclonic disorders. Brain Sci. 2017;7(8):E103.[cancercarewny.com]
  • They slow down your central nervous system and help prevent seizures.[wexnermedical.osu.edu]
  • The relevance of limb movements to stroke has implications for secondary stroke prevention and stroke recovery.[tuck.com]
  • Hospital for Sick Children Health A-Z Search a complete list of child health articles expand_more View All Drug A-Z Search a list of articles about medications expand_more View All Learning Hubs Browse a complete list of content groups Healthy Living & Prevention[aboutkidshealth.ca]

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