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Naegleria Fowleri


Presentation

  • Patients present with signs and symptoms similar to pneumococcal meningitis, leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment and hence high mortality.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Moulds and yeast averages presented 3.0 CFU/ml (SD /- 2.0) and 102.9 CFU/ml (SD /- 32.2), respectively. One hundred per cent of the samples presented a most probable number of total and fecal coliforms of 240,000 NMP/100mL.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract In this review we present our search for the presence of drug targets in several species of human pathogenic parasites, mainly the amoebas Entamoeba histolytica, Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Naegleria fowleri.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Another 5-year-old boy presented to a different institution 2 miles away in the same week with similar complaints.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A literature review of 7 previous reports of PAM in India is also presented. Four of theses eight cases were non lethal. The mean age was 13.06 years with male: female ratio of 7:1. History of contact with water was present in four cases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Fever of Unknown Origin
  • Our case involves an adolescent female who presented with fever of unknown origin. A lumbar puncture was performed, and the Wright-Giemsa and Gram stained cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytospin slides showed numerous organisms.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Intermittent Fever
  • He was admitted in a semi comatosed condition with severe frontal headache, neck stiffness, intermittent fever, nausea, vomiting, left hemiparesis and seizures.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sneezing
  • The patients affected by PAM do not show any evident clinical signs and symptoms of nasal inflammation, like nasal bleeding, pain, tenderness at the bridge of the nose, sneezing, and/or persistent rhinorrhea before developing signs of meningitis in PAM[doi.org]
Rhinorrhea
  • The patients affected by PAM do not show any evident clinical signs and symptoms of nasal inflammation, like nasal bleeding, pain, tenderness at the bridge of the nose, sneezing, and/or persistent rhinorrhea before developing signs of meningitis in PAM[doi.org]

Workup

Streptococcus Pneumoniae
  • Only patients with blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid cultures positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae during the same time period were included for comparison. RESULTS: There were 19 cases of PAM and pneumococcal meningitis, each.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Toxoplasma Gondii
  • gondii – pet-carried protozoan that causes the disease toxoplasmosis Vibrio vulnificus – warm saltwater infectious bacteria Naegleria Infection Information Page from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Naegleria General Information from the[en.wikipedia.org]
Vibrio Vulnificus
  • vulnificus – warm saltwater infectious bacteria Naegleria Infection Information Page from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Naegleria General Information from the website of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Naegleria from The[en.wikipedia.org]

Treatment

  • The only reported side effect to treatment was a reduction in leg sensation for two months after discharge, which gradually improved. There was also no detection of Naegleria fowleri 3 days post-treatment 5.[cdc.gov]
  • These treatments address different aspects of the disease process. Increased understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of PAM is important especially for patients who present with meningitis-like findings during the summer months.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A tyrosine kinase activity assay using exogenous polyGlu-Tyr substrate demonstrated differential activation of tyrosine kinases in amebae treated with NHS when compared to treatment with HIS.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Early treatment of PAM by i.v. administration of amphotericin B and fluconazole, and oral administration of rifampicin can offer some hope of cure for this devastating disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The case had a favorable outcome after treatment with amphotericin B.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • In view of the devastating nature of N. fowleri infection and the problems associated with successful prognosis, here we describe current understanding of the pathogenesis of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, as well as factors that affect virulence[caister.com]
  • This disease shows bad prognosis in humans; the time between contact with the amoebae and the onset of symptoms may vary from 2 to 15 days. Thoracic pain, headache, lethargy and alteration of sense of smell are early symptoms.[scielo.br]

Etiology

  • N. fowleri is the etiologic agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), an acute fatal disease of the central nervous system that results in death in approximately seven days.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Based on all the analyses performed, we concluded that the etiologic agent of both PAM cases was N. fowleri.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Naegleria fowleri is a pathogenic amoeboflagellate most prominently known for its role as the etiological agent of the Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM), a disease that afflicts the central nervous system and is fatal in more than 95%[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • All three amebas are etiologic agents of chronic (Balamuthia, Acanthamoeba) or fulminant (Naegleria) encephalitides in humans and animals and, in the case of Acanthamoeba, amebic keratitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Based on the reactivity of amebas in tissue sections with anti– Naegleria fowleri serum in indirect immunofluorescent (IIF) analysis ( Figure 1 B, inset), the etiologic agent was identified as N. fowleri . DNA was extracted from frozen brain tissue.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • The epidemiology, microbiology, diagnostic considerations, and treatment are discussed. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children with meningitis or encephalitis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The present paper provides a review of the recent information on the biology and epidemiology of the disease caused by the amoeba Approaches in the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of the condition are also discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This case motivated the realization of the present epidemiological study with the aim of identifying free-living amoebae in this area. Representative water samples were taken and physicochemical and microbiologic analyses were carried out.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The need for better epidemiological information and educational programs about basic clinical and pathological aspects of free-living amoebae provided by the health authorities are emphasized.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Nonetheless, the levels of risk thereby obtained cannot be applied to humans without correction, because they are substantially greater than those indicated by available epidemiologic data.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • The present paper provides a review of the recent information on the biology and epidemiology of the disease caused by the amoeba Approaches in the diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of the condition are also discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We also discuss the clinical profiles, mechanisms of pathogenesis, pathophysiology, immunology, antimicrobial sensitivity and molecular characteristics of these amoebae.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Visvesvara et al. (2007) reviewed the diagnosis and pathophysiology of N. fowler infection, as well as public health strategies for monitoring and control.[eol.org]
  • With the devastating nature of this disease and problems associated with its chemotherapy, here we describe the clinical features, pathophysiology and risk factors associated with primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. 2.[caister.com]

Prevention

  • Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. 3 Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sunway University, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This is a serious problem and requires immediate steps to prevent general population to get affected by this lethal neurological infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We suggest that nonsymptomatic infections by N. fowleri may stimulate a local specific immunity that prevents trophozoite adhesion and invasion of nasal mucosa.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • With the intent of creating awareness among travel medicine practitioners and the tourism industry, this review focuses on the presenting features of N. fowleri and PAM and offers insight into the prevention and treatment of the disease.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was contacted, and miltefosine, an investigational medication, was started.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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