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Necator Americanus

Hookworm New World


Presentation

  • These same hookworm-infected individuals also presented significantly down-regulated expression of CD86, CD1a, HLA-ABC, and HLA-DR.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Described is an epidemiological investigation of hookworm infections in a rural community in Zimbabwe, where Necator americanus is the only human helminth species present.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In the present study, we report a molecular-based survey of human hookworm infections present in southern and northeastern Thailand.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Necator americanus was the only helminth parasite found to be present. The age-prevalence and intensity profiles rose asymptotically to an adult prevalence of about 80% and adult mean burden of 7.7 worms per host.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The test was used to determine to what extent this species of hookworm is present in the regions of Bolgatanga and Garu of northern Ghana.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Inflammation
  • This strategy promptly induces any reactive host leucocytes infiltrating the site of parasite colonization to undergo apoptosis, which reduces inflammation and renders the infection relatively asymptomatic.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We propose that allergic inflammation purposefully degrades the hookworm's bite, causing premature detachment, restricted feeding, and expulsion. This novel biological dynamic suggests a new paradigm of hookworm resistance.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We showed that in addition to the postulated role of the eosinophils as effector cells against helminth infection, activated cells may also be recruited to sites of inflammation and contribute to the immune response acting as antigen presenting cells.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Inflamm Bowel Dis 2005 ; 11 : 515. Hotez PJ, Brooker S, Bethony JM, et al. Hookworm infection. N Engl J Med 2004 ; 351 : 799 –807. Best WR, Becktel JM, Singleton JW, et al. Development of a Crohn’s disease activity index.[dx.doi.org]
Gagging
  • The partial ITS1, full length 5.8S gene, and partial ITS2 ribosomal DNA regions were amplified from each larva using PCR and the primers RTHW1F (forward): 5'GAT GAG CAT TGC WTG AAT GCC G-3'and RTHW1R (reverse): 5'GCA AGT RCC GTT CGA CAA ACA G-3'[ 8 ].[doi.org]
Dizziness
  • She was transferred to the National Police Hospital in Seoul for management of severe dyspnea and dizziness. At admission, she showed symptoms or signs of severe anemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Mild and transient side effects such as nausea, dizziness and headache were observed in both groups.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Her symptoms of dyspnea, dizziness, and severe anemia improved. She was discharged on November 5, 2007.[synapse.koreamed.org]

Workup

Dirofilaria Immitis
  • immitis in dogs in Chuncheon, Korea (2004) 2005 June;43(2) Minor liver profile dysfunctions in Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale patients and normalization after treatment 2006 December;44(4)[doi.org]
Candida
  • Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) mallei Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) pseudomallei C California serogroup Campylobacter coli Campylobacter jejuni Candida albicans Capnocytophaga spp. Chikungunya virus Chlamydia psittaci Chlamydia trachomatis Citrobacter spp.[phac-aspc.gc.ca]

Treatment

  • Albendazole, 400 mg, as a single dose treatment was shown to be superior to mebendazole, 600 mg, single dose for the mass treatment of hookworm infection, especially that of Necator americanus, in an endemic area.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This correlation was present both at initial treatment and after 2 years' reinfection. There was a similar negative correlation between the number of eosinophils and hookworm weight and fecundity at initial treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Moreover, this procedure facilitates monitoring of intervention programs and allows species-specific detection of treatment failure following rounds of mass treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The findings indicate that populations of N. americanus might be easier to control by mass-treatment chemotherapy (eradication requiring only 63% of the population to be treated every year for 4 years) than those of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • N. americanus has undergone a considerable and unique expansion of immunomodulator proteins, some of which we highlight as potential treatments against inflammatory diseases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Most individuals are completely cured of the infection Please find comprehensive information on Ancylostomiasis regarding definition, distribution, risk factors, causes, signs & symptoms, diagnosis, complications, treatment, prevention, prognosis, and[dovemed.com]
  • Immediate prognosis is good, but the likelihood of reinfection constitutes a major health problem. Periodic mass treatment of the population has been used in some hookworm control programs.[britannica.com]

Etiology

  • Worldwidely, N. americanus accounts for the predominant etiology of human hookworm infection, whereas A. duodenale occurs in more scattered focal environments ( 2 ).[synapse.koreamed.org]
  • Worldwide, N. americanus is the predominant etiology of human hookworm infection, whereas A. duodenale occurs in more scattered focal environments [ 3 ].[doi.org]

Epidemiology

  • Abstract Described is an epidemiological investigation of hookworm infections in a rural community in Zimbabwe, where Necator americanus is the only human helminth species present.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These observations could have considerable bearing on the interpretation of data from sero-epidemiological studies which failed to take account of concurrent infection with these parasites.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The real-time PCR method was used to conduct an epidemiological survey of hookworm infection in southern Fujian Province of China.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Epidemiological studies suggest that a hookworm infection producing 50 eggs/gram of feces may protect against asthma.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Abstract Baseline data from an epidemiological study of hookworm infection in a rural community in Zimbabwe are presented. The infection status of an age-stratified sample of the community was assessed using anthelmintic expulsion techniques.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Prevention

  • In order to prevent childhood hookworm disease in resource poor settings, a recombinant vaccine is under development by the Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development, a Product Development Partnership (PDP).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Most individuals are completely cured of the infection Please find comprehensive information on Ancylostomiasis regarding definition, distribution, risk factors, causes, signs & symptoms, diagnosis, complications, treatment, prevention, prognosis, and[dovemed.com]
  • Currently, there is a significant focus on the development of new approaches for the prevention and control of hookworms in humans.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • She is an individual with an extreme passion for humanitarian aid, particularly within the promotion of human welfare to eliminate vaccine preventable infectious diseases, in countries with poor public health provisions.[omicsonline.org]

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