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    Neonatal Infection (Infection of Newborn)

    Premature infant with ventilator[1]

    An infection during the first four weeks of life is termed neonatal infection.

    The disorder arises due to this process: infectious.

    Presentation

    The clinical presentation depends on the type of infection, but manifestations such as dyspnea, increased temperature, jaundice, feeding difficulties, seizures, skin rash and a bulging fontanelle may be present [7].

    Skin
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  • Eyes
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  • gastrointestinal
    Failure to Thrive
    • SYMPTOMS Early-onset congenital syphilis (diagnosed before or at age 2 y) • Symptoms in newborns may include: • Failure to gain weight or failure to thrive • Fever • Irritability • No bridge to nose (saddle nose) • Rash of the mouth, genitals, and anus[slideshare.net]
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  • neurologic
    Neonatal Seizures
    • There were no significant differences in sex, delivery route, birth weight, gestational age at birth, Apgar scores, encephalopathy score, neonatal seizures on electroencephalogram, or presence of maternal chorioamnionitis or signs of neonatal sepsis between[nature.com]
    • seizures and unexplained spastic cerebral palsy in infants of normal birth weight. 5 Up to 2 percent of maternal carriers deliver infants with invasive group B streptococcal disease, most of which is caused by inutero infection. 1 Between 30 and 70 percent[aafp.org]
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  • Entire body system
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  • Workup

    A detailed physical examination is crucial in order to make an initial diagnosis, but microbiological studies should be performed to determine the underlying cause, mainly consisting of blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures [3]. In addition, various inflammatory markers have been used to support the diagnosis. Procalcitonin is becoming a reliable early indicator of bacterial infections. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase reactant, while interleukins 6 and 8 (IL-6 and IL-8, respectively), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), CD64 and several other are showing promising results, but their role needs to be established [3] [4].

    Laboratory

    Microbiology
    Plasmodium Falciparum
    • Infants born with malaria can be infected with a variety of species; Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium falciparum.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Infection can pass vertically from mother to fetus/neonate in several ways: Across the placenta - infections include Toxoplasma gondii, Treponema pallidum, Listeria monocytogenes, Plasmodium falciparum (malaria), rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV).[patient.info]
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  • Treatment

    The choice of therapy depends on the clinical presentation and microbiological studies, but initial empiric therapy must be given early on. If a suspicion toward bacterial pathogens exists, antibiotic therapy targeting the most common etiological agents (E. coli and group B streptococcus) should be initiated. Ampicillin combined with cefotaxime is recommended, especially if more severe forms of infection are present [8]. Acyclovir is the drug of choice for HSV [1], while ribavirin may be used for RSV [8]. Amphotericin B deoxycholate is used for neonatal candida infection [3].

    Prognosis

    The majority of infections seen during newborn period are noninvasive and are treated effectively [6], but serious forms may be fatal if left untreated. Neonatal HSV infection carries only a 40 percent survival rate if untreated [1], emphasizing the importance of an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

    Complications

    Sepsis Neonatorum
    • […] neonatale Dutch sepsis neonatorum , pasgeborene; sepsis , sepsis; pasgeborene , sepsis neonataal French Sepsis neonatorum , ETAT SEPTIQUE DU NOUVEAU-NE , Etat septique néonatal German Sepsis neonatorum , SEPSIS NEUGEBORENES , Sepsis Neugeborenes Spanish[fpnotebook.com]
    • Sepsis neonatorum; Neonatal septicemia; Sepsis - infant Neonatal sepsis is a blood infection that occurs in an infant younger than 90 days old.[mountsinai.org]
    • Sepsis neonatorum; Neonatal septicemia; Sepsis - infant Committee on Infectious Diseases; Committee on Fetus and Newborn, Baker CJ, Byington CL, Polin RA..[nlm.nih.gov]
    • Neonatal sepsis is also known as "sepsis neonatorum."[medicinenet.com]
    • Older textbooks may refer to neonatal sepsis as "sepsis neonatorum".[en.wikipedia.org]
    Parainfluenza
    • Other viral infections such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), metapneumovirus (hMPV), rhinovirus, parainfluenza (PIV), and human coronavirus in the neonatal period are associated with recurrent wheezing in later childhood.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Typing of urogenital, maternal, and neonatal isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae in correlation with clinical source of isolation and evidence for a genital specificity of H. influenzae biotype IV.[bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com]
    Retinopathy
    • Candidiasis is associated with retinopathy, prematurity and negative neurodevelopmental consequences.[en.wikipedia.org]
    Ocular Toxoplasmosis
    • Infants that are infected by the protozoanToxoplasma gondii in utero can be born with chorioretinitis or ocular toxoplasmosis.[en.wikipedia.org]
    Complication of Labor and Delivery
    • The increased risk of early-onset sepsis in preterm infants is also related to complications of labor and delivery and immaturity of innate and adaptive immunity. 18 Diagnostic Testing for Sepsis The clinical diagnosis of sepsis in the neonate is difficult[pediatrics.aappublications.org]

    Etiology

    Numerous pathogens have been described as causes of neonatal infection [1] [5]:

    Causes

    Plasmodium
    • Infants born with malaria can be infected with a variety of species; Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium falciparum.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Infection can pass vertically from mother to fetus/neonate in several ways: Across the placenta - infections include Toxoplasma gondii, Treponema pallidum, Listeria monocytogenes, Plasmodium falciparum (malaria), rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV).[patient.info]

    Epidemiology

    Neonatal infections are the primary cause of death in neonates, with more than 1.4-1.6 million fatalities being reported every year [2] [4]. Infections of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and central nervous system are most common [4].

    Sex distribution
    Age distribution

    Pathophysiology

    The pathogenesis model depends on the pathogen responsible for the infection, but the immune system during the newborn period is quite weak and fully relies on maternal immunoglobulins received through transplacental transfer and breastfeeding. A myriad of other factors plays a role in the pathogenesis of neonatal infections, with one of the most important being the mode of acquisition. Infection may be acquired transplacentally prior to birth with examples being toxoplasmosis, syphilis, listeriosis, malaria, and CMV infection, while HIV, hepatitis B, and chlamydia trachomatis infections are acquired during the process of birth. Postnatal infection through breastfeeding is also an important route, especially during early life.

    Prevention

    Regular vaccination protocols have markedly reduced the incidence of neonatal infections and deaths worldwide. Maternal screening and antimicrobial prophylaxis for group B streptococcus have additionally reduced the rates of neonatal infections in newborns [3]. The use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), lactoferrin, probiotics, glutamine, antistaphylococcal agents and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor have been proposed as preventive modes regarding neonatal infection [7]. Prophylactic use of fluconazole is recommended for infants with a very low birth weight, in whom a significantly higher risk of neonatal infection is present [7].

    Summary

    An infection within 28 days of birth is considered to be a neonatal infection. Bacterial, viral, or fungal microorganisms, as well as parasites, may be the causative agents [1] [2] [3]. Neonatal infections are responsible for approximately 1.4-1.6 million deaths throughout the world every year [2] [4], and they are the most common cause of neonatal death [2]. The diagnosis is made by a thorough examination and a meticulous laboratory workup, including detection of inflammatory markers and microbiological investigations [4]. Symptomatic care and the use of antibiotics, antiviral, antifungal or antiparasitic agents are mainstays of therapy [5].

    Patient Information

    Neonatal infection is a term describing the onset of an infection within the first 28 days from birth, and a range of microbiological organisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi may be responsible. Group B streptococcus and Escherichia coli are responsible for about 70% of cases. Neonatal infections are the most common cause of death in neonates, with more than 1.4 million fatalities every year worldwide. The infections of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and central nervous system are most common. Feeding difficulties, inadequate breathing, diarrhea, fever fluctuations and jaundice can be reported as manifestations and the initial diagnosis is made clinically. Various tests in order to identify the underlying cause should be made, as treatment principles significantly differ. Antibiotics should be given for a bacterial infection while certain viruses may be targeted with antiviral agents, but supportive care is equally important in the first few days of illness. Maternal screening for group B streptococcus and subsequent prophylaxis is one of the main preventive strategies.

    Other symptoms

    Valacyclovir
    • The antiviral medications used include acyclovir, penciclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • […] occurs with maternal recurrent infection (at [4] Delivery by elective Cesarean section markedly reduces but does not eliminate the risk for newborn infection. [15] [16] Women with recurrent genital HSV are commonly prophylaxed with acyclovir (ACV) or valacyclovir[cps.ca]
    Rhinovirus
    • Other viral infections such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), metapneumovirus (hMPV), rhinovirus, parainfluenza (PIV), and human coronavirus in the neonatal period are associated with recurrent wheezing in later childhood.[en.wikipedia.org]
    No Retinopathy
    • Candidiasis is associated with retinopathy, prematurity and negative neurodevelopmental consequences.[en.wikipedia.org]
    No Central Nervous System Abnormalities
    • Other signs and symptoms may appear after the neonatal period and include: miscarriage, stillbirth, chorioretinitis development later in life, intracranial calcification hydrocephalus or central nervous system abnormalities.[en.wikipedia.org]
    Calcifications
    • Other signs and symptoms may appear after the neonatal period and include: miscarriage, stillbirth, chorioretinitis development later in life, intracranial calcification hydrocephalus or central nervous system abnormalities.[en.wikipedia.org]
    Invasive Candidiasis
    • candidiasis. 85 Because of its excellent CSF penetration, empirical or therapeutic use of cefotaxime should be restricted for use in infants with meningitis attributable to Gram-negative organisms. 86 Ceftriaxone is contraindicated in neonates because[pediatrics.aappublications.org]

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    References

    1. Corey L, Wald A. Maternal and neonatal herpes simplex virus infections. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(14):1376-1385.
    2. Shah BA, Padbury JF. Neonatal sepsis: An old problem with new insights. Virulence. 2014;5(1):170-178.
    3. Simonsen KA, Anderson-Berry AL, Delair SF, Davies HD. Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2014;27(1):21-47.
    4. Meem M, Modak JK, Mortuza R, Morshed M, Islam MS, Saha SK. Biomarkers for diagnosis of neonatal infections: A systematic analysis of their potential as a point-of-care diagnostics. J Glob Health. 2011;1(2):201-209.
    5. Sinha A, Yokoe D, Platt R. Epidemiology of neonatal infections: experience during and after hospitalization. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22(3):244-251.
    6. Vergnano S, Sharland M, Kazembe P, Mwansambo C, Heath P. Neonatal sepsis: an international perspective. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005;90(3):F220-F224.
    7. Camacho-Gonzalez A, Spearman PW, Stoll BJ. Neonatal Infectious Diseases: Evaluation of Neonatal Sepsis. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2013;60(2):367-389.
    8. Gilbert DN, Chambers HF, Eliopoulos GN, Saag MS. The Sanford Guide to Antimicrobial Therapy 2015. 45th ed. Antimicrobial Therapy, Inc, Sperryville, VA. 2015.

    • A comparison of early-onset group B streptococcal neonatal infection and the respiratory-distress syndrome of the newborn - RC Ablow, SG Driscoll, EL Effmann - England Journal of , 1976 - Mass Medical Soc
    • A comparison of early-onset group B streptococcal neonatal infection and the respiratory-distress syndrome of the newborn - RC Ablow, SG Driscoll, EL Effmann - England Journal of , 1976 - Mass Medical Soc
    • Acute renal failure in neonates: incidence, etiology and outcome - FB Stapleton, DP Jones, RS Green - Pediatric Nephrology, 1987 - Springer
    • An unusual cause of neonatal seizures in a newborn infant - OL De Klerk, TW De Vries, LGF Sinnige - Pediatrics, 1997 - pediatricsdigest.mobi


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