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Neonatal Jaundice

Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia


Presentation

  • Her presentation was ultimately explained with a diagnosis of both conditions, and required treatment with phenobarbitone.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a male neonate born at term, with early neonatal jaundice of unknown cause and without evi-dence of perinatal infection.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In these disorders, the clinical presentation includes jaundice, pale stools, dark urine and hepatomegaly. Splenomegaly is not an early feature since it is due to portal hypertension, a later event.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The study group included 22 neonates presented with fetal distress during labor and 24 neonates with no evidence of fetal distress (control group).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There was a low incidence (26%) ofscreening for G6PD deficiency although it was the most common aetiology for infants presenting from home. Nine (5%) neonates required exchange blood transfusion.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Neonatal Jaundice
  • Background: Neonatal jaundice is a common problem in newborns. Inadequate breastfeeding jaundice is an important consideration for the neonatal jaundice.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Black race and maternal smoking were not protective against neonatal jaundice as in some other studies. CONCLUSION: More than half (55.2%) of healthy term neonates developed neonatal jaundice.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSION: Haemolytic and nonhaemolytic neonatal jaundice had different risk factor profiles.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSION: Neonatal jaundice is associated with the development of allergic diseases in early childhood.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Children were analyzed as case (those with neonatal jaundice) and controls (those without neonatal jaundice).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Workup

  • Do workup for underlying cause if receiving phototherapy, appears ill, or bili rising rapidly (i.e. crossing percentiles), and no obvious explanation on Hx/Px: Total and (with the first measurement) direct bilirubin--If the latter is elevated, check u[faculty.washington.edu]
  • An additional workup for hyperbilirubinemia may include: Blood group and direct Coombs testing in babies who are at risk of Rh or ABO isoimmunization.[pathophys.org]
  • In up to 50 percent of infants with severe jaundice, breastfeeding and lower gestational age were the only causes identified despite extensive workups.[encyclopedia.com]

Treatment

  • […] its efficacy for the treatment of newborn with hyperbilirubinaemia.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Mothers educated by health workers were 40% less likely to resort to potentially harmful treatment for NNJ (AOR:0.60; CI:0.39-0.92) but more likely to seek hospital treatment in future for an infant suspected with jaundice (AOR:1.88; CI:1.20-2.95).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • INTRODUCTION: Because neonatal jaundice remains one of the most commonly treated conditions of the newborn infant, it is important to assess the unintended consequences of treatment with phototherapy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSION: This study revealed that expectant mothers attending antenatal clinic at UBTH had good knowledge of the treatment and complications of NNJ but inadequate knowledge of the causes and danger signs of the condition.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Prognosis depends on timely diagnosis and management. We evaluated the clinical practices among healthcare professionals concerning jaundiced newborns and their ability to recognize pale stools.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The prognosis for infants with idiopathic neonatal hepatitis and multifactorial cholestasis is excellent. Copyright 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • , Prevention, and Complications Prognosis ranges widely can spontaneously resolve or be fatal depending on etiology Prevention preventive measures are usually not available stop breast-feeding to speed resolution of neonatal jaundice, though not required[step2.medbullets.com]
  • Prognosis This is dependent on the underlying cause but otherwise excellent with prompt diagnosis and treatment. Biliary atresia requires surgery within the first two months of life for a better prognosis [ 5 ] .[patient.info]

Etiology

  • Many different etiologies come into play together, and at times, it is difficult to isolate the cause of neonatal jaundice.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Therefore, we suggest that urine culture should be considered as a part of the diagnostic evaluation of jaundiced neonates older than 3 days with an unexplained etiology. Copyright 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We included studies, without restriction on methodological design that provided evidence on the incidence/prevalence, etiological /risk factors and adverse outcomes of hyperbilirubinemia, care-seeking practices, diagnosis and treatment, as well as follow-up[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Figure 1: Etiologies of neonatal jaundice.[omicsonline.org]
  • Etiological verification is essential because the underlying diseases are critical factors of neurological sequelae [ 7 ]. There is a wide range of conditions that affect bilirubin levels, including environmental and genetic origins.[omicsonline.org]

Epidemiology

  • Abstract Using guidelines of the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Group, we systematically reviewed the literature on neonatal jaundice (unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in term and preterm infants[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We set out to describe the epidemiology of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia as well as the practices and challenges in the care of infants with significant neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (SNH) in Nigeria, as basis for policy intervention and research priorities[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of neonatal jaundice at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI).[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • G., In this issue, Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 20, 4, (269), (2006).[doi.org]
  • Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention / American Association for Cancer Research Anmerkungen Abkürzungstitel: Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers & Prev.[zdb-katalog.de]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Abstract Fetal distress represents a pathophysiological condition in which oxygen is not available to the fetus in sufficient quantities.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Major pathophysiological causes or associations include ABO and other blood group incompatibility, glucose-6-phoshate-dehydrogenase deficiency, infection and haemolysis of other causes including spherocytosis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA Pathophysiology Causes of Neonatal Hyperpbilirubinemia Evaluation of Neonatal Jaundice When to Treat How to Treat PATHOPHYSIOLOGY "Bilirubin encephalopathy" Refers to a neonatal syndrome of neurologic abnormalities and, in[faculty.washington.edu]
  • The acquired form is more common, and pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated.[pathophys.org]

Prevention

  • Recognition and treatment of Rh hemolytic disease, another known preventable cause of kernicterus, is critical. In addition, effective phototherapy is crucial if we are to make kernicterus a "never-event."[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • For the first time, the possibility of eliminating the tragedy of preventable morbidity and mortality from severe NNJ is on the horizon, for all. Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • It is of concern that currently there is a paucity of incidence data in Australia relating to this potentially devastating yet generally preventable condition.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Timely detection, monitoring, and treatment within this window is effective in preventing most bilirubin-induced mortality.[doi.org]
  • BACKGROUND: In populations with a high prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, practices that can induce haemolysis need to be identified to raise awareness of preventable risks.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

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