Neonatal meningitis is a condition involving inflammation of the meninges, occurring within the first month of life.
The clinical features seen in neonatal meningitis are usually indistinguishable from those of neonatal sepsis. The most prevalent clinical signs include temperature instability, irritability or lethargy and poor feeding or vomiting . Neurological manifestations are more commonly seen after a bacterial attack. Meningitis caused by group B streptococci may initially present with features of respiratory distress, accompanying a systemic illness. These findings become less common with an earlier age of onset.
Temperature instability presents either as fever or hypothermia and is the most commonly reported clinical feature.
Neurologic signs may include irritability, lethargy, hypotonia, muscle twitches, tremors and seizures. A more specific feature is paradoxical irritability, wherein consolation by parents irritates rather than comforts the affected neonate. Findings of a full or bulging fontanelle are not uncommon. Some patients may present with nuchal rigidity or hydrocephalus . Cranial nerve lesions, especially involving the oculomotor, abducens and facial nerve may be seen in a few children.
Ventriculitis is seen accompanying neonatal meningitis in a few children, especially in those afflicted with gram negative bacilli . Certain organisms (C. diversus, Cronobacter (previously Enterobacter) sakazakii) responsible for causing vasculitis along with meningitis may lead to brain cysts and abscesses. Brain abscesses may have raised intracranial tension as one of its first manifestations, thereby leading to an increase in head size and non-projectile vomiting.
Entire Body System
Symptoms include sepsis, fever, irritability, and dyspnea. It can be caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli), and in rare cases, listeria monocytogenes (listeria). [imedpub.com]
The symptoms were fever and seizures. The culture of cerebrospinal fluid showed to be positive for Neisseria meningitidis B. culture blood was negative. Antibiotic therapy was started at admission and maintained for 3 weeks. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
The mother usually experienced a flu-like illness late in the third trimester of pregnancy, characterized by low-grade fever, myalgias, malaise, and backache. [labce.com]
- Cerebral Palsy
Brain damage Cognitive impairments Cerebral palsy Edema (fluid buildup in the brain) Brain abscesses (pus-filled pockets) Cerebral palsy Developmental delays Seizure disorders Learning disabilities What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Neonatal Sepsis and [michigancerebralpalsyattorneys.com]
However, if treatment is delayed or improper, neonatal meningitis can result in serious disabilities such as cerebral palsy, seizure disorders, and developmental issues such as vision and hearing impairments (2). [abclawcenters.com]
- Acutely Ill Patient
Prognosis Meningitis kills more UK children under the age of 5 than any other infectious disease. [ 2 ] Prognosis depends on the pathogen, the patient's age and condition and the severity of acute illness. [patient.info]
Pregnant women with listeriosis typically experience only fever and other flu-like symptoms, such as fatigue and aches. [cdc.gov]
[…] hydrocephalus Pituitary gland insufficiency Treatment : antituberculosis treatment Cryptococcal meningitis Pathogen : Cryptococcus neoformans (a type of yeast ) Etiology: AIDS Exposure to pigeon droppings Clinical course : subacute onset with (low) fever, fatigue [amboss.com]
[…] anterior fontanelle bulging seizures jitteriness dyspnea irritability anorexia vomiting diarrhea abdominal distention (increase in abdominal size) neck rigidity cyanosis jaundice sunset eyes (downward gaze of the eyes) abnormal body temperature (hypo-or hyperthermia [en.wikipedia.org]
[…] fontanelle bulging seizure jitteriness dyspnea irritability anorexia vomiting diarrhea abdominal distention (increase in abdominal size) neck rigidity cyanosis jaundice and sunset eyes (downward gaze of the eyes) abnormal body temperature ( hypo -or hyperthermia [en.m.wikipedia.org]
- Abdominal Distension
On the fourth day, the baby developed lethargy, refused to feed, and developed abdominal distension. The baby was referred to the neonatal intensive care unit at Sir Ganga Ram Hospital on the sixth day of life. [journals.lww.com]
Fever, irritability, seizures and a bulging fontanel were significantly more frequent among newborns whose birth weight was > " 2500g, whereas abdominal distension, apnea, jaundice and blood count abnormalities were predominant among low-birth weight [scielo.br]
[…] pathogens include E. coli and Listeria monocytogenes. 1 The cumulative incidence of meningitis is highest in the first month of life and is higher in preterm neonates than term neonates. 2 Patients may present with difficulty feeding, apnea, bradycardia, hypotension [acepnow.com]
The recognition and treatment of hypotension is particularly important to avoid complications such as cerebral ischaemic... Read more... [health.vic.gov.au]
Meningococcal meningitis and/or septicaemia may also present with capillary refill time more than two seconds, unusual skin colour and hypotension. [patient.info]
Stupor and irritability are common in late-onset meningitis as are neurological complications. [acepnow.com]
Symptoms among older children and adults may progress from irritability through confusion, drowsiness, and stupor, possibly leading to coma. [rarediseases.org]
[…] macular, mucosal) Tachypnea or apnea Jaundice Bulging fontanelle (late) Vomiting or diarrhea Altered sleep pattern PHYSICAL EXAMINATION In the physical examination of a newborn or infant with meningitis, findings may range from completely normal to stupor [aafp.org]
Signs suggestive of meningeal irritation, including stiff neck, bulging fontanelle, convulsions, and opisthotonus, occur only in a minority of neonates with bacterial meningitis and cannot be relied on solely to identify such patients. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Stiff neck (generally not present in children under the age of one year or in patients with altered mental state), back rigidity, bulging fontanelle (in infants), photophobia, opisthotonus (if severe). [patient.info]
Late in the illness, classical features of raised intracranial pressure such as full and tense fontanelles, setting‐sun eye appearance, retrocollis, opisthotonus (when the neck of the infant is twisted backwards) and seizures can occur. [cochranelibrary.com]
- Neonatal Seizures
For example, if a baby shows signs of neonatal seizures, they may need anticonvulsant medications. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be performed before antibiotics are discontinued (4). [abclawcenters.com]
Meningitis is associated with an increased risk of mortality in neonates and hence, there should be no delay in the workup of a neonate suspected of suffering from meningitis. A lumbar puncture is the gold standard test to be done in such neonates, even in the absence of neurological manifestations.
The major findings seen on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis include an elevated CSF protein, decreased CSF glucose and pleocytosis, with polymorphonuclear leucocytes dominating the picture in both bacterial and viral meningitis. All three parameters need to be normal for a diagnosis of meningitis to be excluded . Symptomatic neonates should also undergo a CSF culture for confirmation of the diagnosis. It has been found though, that 15-30% of CSF-proven cases have negative blood culture results .
Another modality with higher sensitivity and specificity rates to detect neonatal meningitis is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, that is being increasingly used to detect the presence of organisms such as group B streptococci, herpes simplex virus, enterovirus etc  .
Urinary latex particle agglutination (LGA) is another method designed to rapidly screen neonates for meningitis.
The neuroimaging study of choice is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that may help to locate the foci of infection, areas of edema, hemorrhage, infarction or abscesses. Follow-up scans may help evaluate the resolution of infection. Newer MRI techniques such as diffusion-weighted scans and diffusion tensor imaging are being used to note any white matter changes associated with neonatal meningitis .
Computed tomography (CT) scans may appear to be beneficial in patients posted for neurosurgery, whilst cranial ultrasonography may be useful to document ventricle size in hydrocephalus. Chest radiography and electroencephalography (EEG) studies may be done in some cases.
- Streptococcus Bovis
NeonatalSepsis Caused by Streptococcus Bovis Variant (biotype II/2):Report of a Case and Review. Journal of Clinical Microbiology.2003;41:3433–5. Boyer-Mariotte S, Duboc P, Bonacorsi S, Lemeland J F, BingenE, Pinquier D. [revistas.unimilitar.edu.co]
Dhananja Namalie, Streptococcus bovis – unusual etiology of meningitis in a neonate with Down syndrome: a case report, Journal of Medical Case Reports, 10.1186/s13256-018-1634-y, 12, 1, (2018). Lip Nam Loh, Elizabeth M. C. [dx.doi.org]
Follow-up MRI was performed in five of the neonates in the patient group after 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment. FA and MD values were compared in patients before and after antibiotic treatment as well as with those in the healthy controls. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
The aim for these treatments is to sterilize the cerebrospinal fluid of all pathogens. A repeat spinal tap 24 to 48 hours after treatment has been started should be done to confirm sterilization. [en.wikipedia.org]
If treatment is timely and appropriate, most newborns do very well. [abclawcenters.com]
Patients with the outcomes of death and having sequelae were regarded as having a poor prognosis. Those who were lost to follow-up were excluded from the analysis of outcome. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Prognosis Without treatment, the mortality rate for neonatal bacterial meningitis approaches 100%. With treatment, prognosis is determined by birth weight, organism, and clinical severity. [merckmanuals.com]
Early recognition of neonates at risk of poor prognosis would be helpful in providing timely management. [journals.plos.org]
In this study the main etiological agent identified from CSF culture was S. pneumoniae. [springerplus.springeropen.com]
The overall mortality rate was 13% but reached 25% in preterm or small for gestational age infants, regardless of the etiology. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
The histologic diagnosis therefore is suppurative meningitis, with culture results necessary to establish the etiologic agent. [labce.com]
Coagulase-negative staphylococci were considered to be the etiological agent of meningitis only when they was isolated in CSF and blood cultures at the same time. [scielo.br]
Using an illustrative case of a premature infant with Ureaplasma parvum meningitis, confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid cultures and both specific and 16s rDNA polymerase chain reaction, we discuss the epidemiology of Ureaplasma species, the difficulties [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Transmission and Epidemiology (Escherichia coli) Occurs most often in premature babies, with a 20% mortality rate, even with aggressive treatment. Those who survive have permanent brain damage. [quizlet.com]
Over the past few years, major progress has been made in the understanding of the pathophysiology of E. coli O18:K1:H7 neonatal meningitis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Noninfectious meningitis Sarcoidosis Tumor metastases (meningeal carcinomatosis and meningeal leukemia ) Medication (e.g., NSAIDs ) References:       Pathophysiology Most pathogens that cause meningitis colonize the nasopharynx or the [amboss.com]
Teixeira, Pathophysiology of neonatal acute bacterial meningitis, Journal of Medical Microbiology, 62, Pt_12, (1781), (2013). Huan-ling Wang, Khalil G. [dx.doi.org]
Prevention and Treatment (Cronobacter sakazakii) -FDA and CDC advise hospitals to use ready-to-feed and concentrated liquid formulas. [quizlet.com]
Prevention of neonatal meningitis is primarily intrapartum (during labor) antibiotic prophylaxis (prevention) of pregnant mothers to decrease chance of early-onset meningitis by Streptococcus agalactiae. [en.wikipedia.org]
It is suggested that the identification and appropriate treatment of any maternal bacterial infection is an important measure in preventing neonatal sepsis and meningitis. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Currently, the best means of neonatal GBS prevention is the use of maternal IAP to prevent early onset GBS disease. However, IAP only prevents early onset GBS disease, 38 and the majority of GBS meningitis cases are of late onset. [dx.doi.org]
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