Edit concept Question Editor Create issue ticket

Neoplasm of the Esophagus


Presentation

  • Four patients presented squamous cell carcinoma simultaneously and 1 also presented adenocarcinoma. Main sites of metastasis were liver, peritoneum, lung and bones. Most patients died before 2 years of follow-up.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A rare case of life-threatening hemorrhage from a vascular neoplasm of the esophagus is presented. The exact nature of the lesion remained obscure in spite of careful histomorphologic analysis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Herein, we present the case of a 76-year-old female patient with oesophageal MPNST who presented with lymph node and distant metastases at the time of diagnosis, accounting for the second time only that this unusual presentation of this extremely uncommon[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Odynophagia (painful swallowing) may be present. Fluids and soft foods are usually tolerated, while hard or bulky substances (such as bread or meat) cause much more difficulty.[checkorphan.org]
  • […] at low stage with intraluminal instead of intramural growth 30% have nodal metastases at presentation (usually epithelial or both components) Sarcomatous component thought to represent sarcomatous metaplasia of malignant epithelial cells; has malignant[pathologyoutlines.com]
Weight Loss
  • Weight loss. If the tumor becomes too large to allow enough food through the esophagus, weight loss can occur. Esophageal cancer may also affect metabolism, which can also lead to significant weight loss. Pneumonia.[everydayhealth.com]
  • Some of these symptoms may ultimately cause weight loss.[nyp.org]
  • However, as the cancer grows, symptoms may include painful or difficult swallowing, weight loss and coughing up blood.[icd9data.com]
  • Later, you may have symptoms such as Painful or difficult swallowing Weight loss A hoarse voice or cough that doesn't go away You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid reflux .[medlineplus.gov]
  • Aim for a slow and steady weight loss of 1 or 2 pounds a week.[mayoclinic.org]
Malnutrition
  • It can lead to regurgitation of food, weight loss, physical wasting, and malnutrition.[encyclopedia.com]
Choking
  • This can cause symptoms of choking, gagging, and coughing while swallowing. Tracheo-esophageal fistulas can be managed with surgery or by placing a stent, a small tube that covers the fistulas, in the esophagus to keep food out of the windpipe.[everydayhealth.com]
  • As your cancer progresses, you may experience: unintentional weight loss indigestion heartburn pain or difficulty when swallowing frequent choking while eating vomiting food coming back up the esophagus chest pain fatigue chronic cough hiccups As with[healthline.com]
  • […] unexplained tiredness, which may be due to anaemia vomit containing blood black-coloured or bloody stools Oesophageal cancer difficulty swallowing vomiting blood black-coloured or bloody stools food or fluids "catching" in the throat or episodes of choking[cancervic.org.au]
  • Coughing or choking on eating may be due to aspiration, predisposed by the presence of vocal cord palsy if present, or the development of an oesophageal-respiratory fistula. Squamous cell cancers of the oesophagus rarely bleed.[surgwiki.com]
  • […] achalasia, corrosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, tylosis palmaris et plantaris Clinical Dysphagia, retrosternal discomfort and pain, pressure, burning, and a sensation of food being stuck, eventually, narrowing of esophagus becomes severe, with choking[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]
Gagging
  • This can cause symptoms of choking, gagging, and coughing while swallowing. Tracheo-esophageal fistulas can be managed with surgery or by placing a stent, a small tube that covers the fistulas, in the esophagus to keep food out of the windpipe.[everydayhealth.com]
  • The doctor administers a topical anesthetic to the throat to suppress the gag reflex. Doctors frequently give intravenous (IV) sedation just before the procedure. The doctor then inserts an endoscope into the esophagus.[emedicinehealth.com]
Hematemesis
  • Uncommon findings include cervical adenopathy, hematemesis, hemoptysis, or hoarseness from recurrent nerve involvement, which is present in less than 10% of patients at the time of diagnosis. 19 Diagnosis The Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the National[aafp.org]
Progressive Dysphagia
  • Patients with advanced disease may present with progressive dysphagia (solids first, followed by liquids as the disease progresses), unintentional weight loss (10% or more in the preceding three to six months), odynophagia (painful swallowing, often noticed[aafp.org]

Workup

  • Algorithm for the workup of symptoms suggestive of esophageal cancer. Information from references 20 through 23. Workup of Symptoms Suggestive of Esophageal Cancer Figure 4. Algorithm for the workup of symptoms suggestive of esophageal cancer.[aafp.org]
  • "Esophageal cancer: A Review of epidemiology, pathogenesis, staging workup and treatment modalities". World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology. 6 (5): 112–20. doi : 10.4251/wjgo.v6.i5.112. PMC 4021327. PMID 24834141.[en.wikipedia.org]
Esophageal Motility Disorder
  • Achalasia is a relatively rare esophageal motility disorder characterized by incomplete relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and lack of esophageal peristalsis. 1 The disorder has an incidence of approximately 1 to 1.6 per 100,000 people[cancertherapyadvisor.com]
  • These include: Achalasia: This is a type of esophageal motility disorder. Age: Esophageal cancer is more common after 60 years of age. Alcohol and smoking: Either or both of these increase the risk.[medicalnewstoday.com]

Treatment

  • The potential benefits of receiving cancer treatment must be carefully balanced with the potential risks of receiving cancer treatment. The following is a general overview of the treatment of stage III esophageal cancer.[texasoncology.com]
  • Options for treatment typically include endoscopic treatments such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), or endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR).[cancer.org]
  • The approach to cancer treatment is individualized to each patient's situation. Recommended treatments depend on the stage and health of the patient.[medicinenet.com]
  • Recurrent esophageal cancer is disease that develops in the esophagus or another part of the body after initial treatment. Treatment Treatment for esophageal cancer is determined by the stage of the disease and the patient's general health.[encyclopedia.com]
  • Management and treatment Treatment may be with curative intent when the disease is confined to the esophagus and even when local nodes of the primary tumor are involved, and when the patient is fit enough for treatment.[orpha.net]

Prognosis

  • الصفحة 63 - H, et al (1995) Mortality and morbidity rates, postoperative course, quality of life, and prognosis after extended radical lymphadenectomy for esophageal cancer: comparison of three-field lymphadenectomy with two-field lymphadenectomy.[books.google.com]
  • There has been much controversy surrounding the biologic behavior and prognosis of esophageal signet ring cell (SRCs) containing carcinomas.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • Does this mean that the tumor has invaded deeply and is associated with a poor prognosis? On a biopsy, the pathologist usually cannot determine how deeply the tumor is invading and consequently cannot determine the prognosis.[adasp.org]
  • While MPNST is generally considered an aggressive type of tumour with high recurrence rates after surgical treatment and poor prognosis, previous reports of cases with oesophageal localization have recorded satisfactory outcomes overall even with less[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The clinicopathological features and prognosis of SpCC are analyzed in Table 2.[journals.lww.com]

Etiology

  • Etiology The exact etiology is unknown. Cigarette smoking and alcohol abuse are the principal risk factors. There is also an association with idiopathic achalasia (see this term), a motility disorder of the esophagus.[orpha.net]
  • Codes with this note are Etiology codes and must be followed by a Manifestation code or codes.[icd.codes]
  • Acute esophageal syndromes In the table on the left are etiologies of an acute esophageal syndrome. Boerhaave syndrome Boerhaave syndrome is rupture of the esophageal wall.[radiologyassistant.nl]
  • SGLT2 inhibitors prevent HF hospitalization regardless of baseline LVEF May 9, 2019 Bruce Jancin Bruce Jancin May 9, 2019 Journal of Clinical Outcomes Management More Quizzes MDIQ Smoking, cardiovascular risk, and diabetes Obesity and cancer incidence Etiologies[jcomjournal.com]
  • Causes Although its etiology is unknown, for many years in the United States, the primary risk factors were alcohol and tobacco use. In recent decades, there has been a progressive increase related to gastroesophageal reflux disease.[medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com]

Epidemiology

  • This review discusses the epidemiologic aspects, pathogenesis, prevention, and therapy of esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma, focusing on recent advances.[nejm.org]
  • American Journal of Epidemiology. 178(4): 570-81 Coleman HG. Murray LJ. Hicks B. Bhat SK. Kubo A. Corley DA. Cardwell CR.[roswellpark.org]
  • "Epidemiology of Esophageal Cancer". Epidemiology of Chronic Disease: Global Perspectives. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 157–161. ISBN 978-0-7637-8047-0. Archived from the original on 2015-09-25.[en.wikipedia.org]
  • […] commonly used Synonyms include carcinosarcoma, pseudosarcomatous squamous cell carcinoma, polypoid carcinoma, metaplastic carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma with a spindle cell component, Lane tumor, carcinoma with mesenchymal stroma and pseudosarcoma Epidemiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • Summary Epidemiology ESCC has an estimated annual incidence of 1/29,400. Clinical description The average age of onset of ESCC is between the ages of 60 to 70 years and it is more frequently seen in males.[orpha.net]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • […] polypoid carcinoma, metaplastic carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma with a spindle cell component, Lane tumor, carcinoma with mesenchymal stroma and pseudosarcoma Epidemiology Uncommon, usually middle aged to elderly men Sites Typically in mid esophagus Pathophysiology[pathologyoutlines.com]
  • Although the exact pathophysiology underlying achalasia is not fully understood, there is degeneration of ganglion cells within the esophagus and LES.[cancertherapyadvisor.com]

Prevention

  • Pierre, MD May 1, 2019 Journal of Clinical Outcomes Management April 3, 2019 Aspirin for primary prevention: USPSTF recommendations for CVD and colorectal cancer April 3, 2019 Dustin K. Smith, DO, et al Dustin K.[jcomjournal.com]
  • This review discusses the epidemiologic aspects, pathogenesis, prevention, and therapy of esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma, focusing on recent advances.[nejm.org]
  • Prevention Esophageal cancer cannot be completely prevented, but risk can be lowered by reducing alcohol consumption and avoiding tobacco.[britannica.com]
  • Prevention - Esophageal neoplasm Not supplied.[checkorphan.org]
  • Antireflux surgery appears to have minimal benefit in preventing esophageal cancer.[aafp.org]

Ask Question

5000 Characters left Format the text using: # Heading, **bold**, _italic_. HTML code is not allowed.
By publishing this question you agree to the TOS and Privacy policy.
• Use a precise title for your question.
• Ask a specific question and provide age, sex, symptoms, type and duration of treatment.
• Respect your own and other people's privacy, never post full names or contact information.
• Inappropriate questions will be deleted.
• In urgent cases contact a physician, visit a hospital or call an emergency service!