Edit concept Question Editor Create issue ticket

Nephrolithiasis

Kidney Stone


Presentation

  • For patients presenting with acute renal colic, especially those with body mass index of KEYWORDS: Computed tomography; Imaging technique; Ionizing; Kidney stones; Nephrolithiasis; Radiation exposure[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present a case where a patient presented with symptomatic indinavir-induced nephrolithiasis 3.5 years after discontinuing indinavir.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Nephrobronchial fistula, although a rare complication of longstanding renal stone, should be considered when a patient presents with perirenal suppurative process.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This case can be considered as idiopathic, or an early presentation of one of the rare genetic disorders associated with renal stones.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 31-year-old white woman with a past medical history of menorrhagia, anemia, and recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis presented for preoperative evaluation prior to ureterolithotomy.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pain
  • A Caucasian man aged 25 years had sudden bilateral inguinal and occasional periumbilical pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nephrolithiasis is a rare complication of pediatric DKA, and should be considered in children with DKA who develop hematuria, flank pain, or suprapubic pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Topiramate is an approved drug to treat seizures, but its indications have been extended to other diseases of the nervous system and as an adjuvant to chronic pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 64-year-old man with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (including atazanavir, a protease inhibitor) presented with left flank pain, nausea and vomiting.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Due to its variable presentations, it is usually discovered incidentally, especially when investigating patients for abdominal pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Severe Pain
  • In renal colic there is generally severe pain leading from the kidneys down through the abdomen and groin.[britannica.com]
  • The medical term for kidney stones is nephrolithiasis, and if they cause severe pain it's known as renal colic. Symptoms of kidney stones Small kidney stones may go undetected and be passed out painlessly in the urine.[nhs.uk]
  • Seite xxix - all remind us we can make our live sublime, and, departing, leave behind us, footprints ‎ Seite 570 - desire to eat, feels well only when the stomach is full, or else, severe pain. Pressure and distress ‎[books.google.de]
  • In severe, painful affections a dose every ten to fifteen minutes. In chronic affections one to four doses daily. Precautions Always keep a gap of 15 minutes before or after meals when you take medicine.[healthmug.com]
  • However, urologic intervention should be initiated for unremitting severe pain and urinary obstruction.[pedclerk.bsd.uchicago.edu]
Vomiting
  • A 64-year-old man with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (including atazanavir, a protease inhibitor) presented with left flank pain, nausea and vomiting.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Nausea and vomiting are common. Renal Calculi[omicsonline.org]
  • Nausea and vomiting are common. Treatment includes relief of pain, hydration and, if there is concurrent urinary infection, antibiotics. The majority of stones pass spontaneously within 48 hours.[medicinenet.com]
  • Nausea and vomiting are common. Predisposing factors may include recent reduction in fluid intake, increased exercise with dehydration , medications that cause hyperuricemia (high uric acid) and a history of gout .[medicinenet.com]
  • Kidney stone pain may be accompanied by other signs and symptoms like nausea, vomiting, dizziness, bloody urine (hematuria), straining and pain/burning upon urination.[healthhype.com]
Nausea
  • Potentially presenting with acute abdominal or flank pain, nausea, or emesis, it may pose as a general surgical condition. Therefore, recognition, diagnosis, and management concerns are pertinent to the general surgeon.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 64-year-old man with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (including atazanavir, a protease inhibitor) presented with left flank pain, nausea and vomiting.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Nausea and vomiting are common. Renal Calculi[omicsonline.org]
  • Nausea and vomiting are common. Treatment includes relief of pain, hydration and, if there is concurrent urinary infection, antibiotics. The majority of stones pass spontaneously within 48 hours.[medicinenet.com]
  • Your provider may prescribe medicine to: Treat pain Treat or prevent an infection Reduce swelling in the urinary tract Prevent nausea Prevent more stones from developing Your healthcare provider may recommend that you drink larger quantities of fluids[summitmedicalgroup.com]
Abdominal Pain
  • Patients receiving a high dose of ceftriaxone and developing colicky abdominal pain should be considered for ultrasound and a change in antibiotic therapy if appropriate.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Due to its variable presentations, it is usually discovered incidentally, especially when investigating patients for abdominal pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Haug Browse recently published Learning/CME Learning/CME View all learning/CME CME Partial Oral versus Intravenous Antibiotic Treatment of Endocarditis Case 4-2019: An 18-Year-Old Man with Abdominal Pain and Hematochezia Bridging the Gap Challenge Yourself[nejm.org]
  • pain Painful urination Excessive urination at night Urinary hesitancy Testicle pain Groin pain Fever Chills Abnormal urine color Signs and tests Pain may be severe enough to require narcotics.[endocrinesurgery.ucla.edu]
  • Nausea, Vomiting, Urinary frequency/urgency, Haematuria (blood in the urine), Abdominal pain, Dysuria (painful urination), Nocturia (excessive at night), Urinary hesitancy, Fever, Chills and Abnormal urine color or smell.[myvmc.com]
Left Flank Pain
  • A 64-year-old man with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (including atazanavir, a protease inhibitor) presented with left flank pain, nausea and vomiting.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Snapshot A 30-year-old man presents to the emergency department with severe, colicky left flank pain of acute onset that radiates to the left groin. He also reports urinary frequency and urgency.[medbullets.com]
Tachycardia
  • Dysuria (burning pain on micturation) Tachycardia Decreased blood pressure – can lead to septic shock.[almostadoctor.co.uk]
  • This may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, tachycardia Bladder stone Characterised by dysuria( pain or burning during micturition), frequency and urgency 6.[de.slideshare.net]
Agitation
  • The patients are usually restless and agitated. Diagnosis & Laboratory Investigations of Nephrolithiasis Urine Examination Image : “Calcium oxalate crystals: Envelope and dumbbell shaped crystals in the urine” by Doruk Salancı.[lecturio.com]
Hematuria
  • There was a family history of renal stones in both maternal and paternal grandparents and of microscopic hematuria in the mother. There was no associated urinary flow obstruction and the hematuria remitted spontaneously.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • By ultrasound and abdominal CT scan, the urologist could exclude post-renal causes of the gross hematuria and acute renal failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Renal ultrasonography performed because of hematuria showed bilateral nephrolithiasis. Renal wasting of calcium and magnesium was detected and urine citrate excretion was low.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Bilateral nephrolithiasis was discovered after an episode of hematuria. Metabolic causes of nephrolithiasis were not found.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Here we report the case of a 75-year-old Caucasian man with a prolonged history of renal stones who was admitted for gross hematuria associated with renal failure.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Flank Pain
  • A 64-year-old man with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (including atazanavir, a protease inhibitor) presented with left flank pain, nausea and vomiting.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Potentially presenting with acute abdominal or flank pain, nausea, or emesis, it may pose as a general surgical condition. Therefore, recognition, diagnosis, and management concerns are pertinent to the general surgeon.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A 36-year-old man was admitted to hospital due to right flank pain as a result of ureteral stones. He had been followed up for type 1 glycogen storage disease since the age of 11 years.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nephrolithiasis is a rare complication of pediatric DKA, and should be considered in children with DKA who develop hematuria, flank pain, or suprapubic pain.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • pain radiating to the right groin.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Flank Pain Radiating to the Groin
  • The presence of flank pain, radiating to the groin, is due to the presence of a stone in the lower ureter, while the presence of constant flank pain indicates the presence of a stone at the upper ureter or at ureteropelvic junction.[lecturio.com]
Renal Pain
  • Anubha Sikka Indications • Patient c/o left renal pain with mild burning micturition • Investigations- USG abdomen • Left ureterovesical junction causing mild hydroureteronephrosis, 7mm in size at lower end of left ureter Prescription Berb vulgaris 30[de.slideshare.net]

Workup

  • All patients were seen at least twice and had undergone a metabolic workup. RESULTS: A total of 260 return patients were seen during the period 2010-2015. The male:female ratio was 3.1:1. Mean age at the first stone event was 44.1 years.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The first kidney stone in a child prompts a more complete workup.[arupconsult.com]
Nephrolithiasis
  • All three patients with nephrolithiasis were males with new onset type 1 diabetes, aged 11 to 16.5 years. They all developed symptoms of nephrolithiasis after transition to subcutaneous insulin.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates an association between sialolithiasis and nephrolithiasis. The results call for more awareness of this association among physicians and patients with nephrolithiasis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • CONCLUSION: There is no evidence of an increased risk of sialolithiasis associated with nephrolithiasis. We suggest that routine evaluation for sialolithiasis in all patients with nephrolithiasis is not necessary.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • OUTCOME: The development of nephrolithiasis during follow-up. MEASUREMENTS: Nephrolithiasis is determined based on ultrasonographic findings.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Fatty liver and nephrolithiasis were determined based on ultrasonographic findings. We used a parametric Cox model to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of nephrolithiasis according to the presence of NAFLD.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Pyuria
  • He is of feeble health usually or disabled for active labor, has backache or constant pain and hematuria or pyuria.[henriettes-herb.com]

Treatment

  • Occurrence of gross hematuria several months after the extracorporeal shock wave, lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment lead to hospitalization.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • There is limited information about how this complication develops, though high doses and extended treatment periods are generally considered to be responsible.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Renal calculi were detected on the X-ray films during the first line treatment. Transurethrally crushed stones consisted of calcium oxalate.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • In general, these adverse effects will develop after seven to ten days of treatment. We report on a seven-year-old boy with ceftriaxone-associated biliary pseudolithiasis and nephrolithiasis four days after initiation of treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • After two extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatments disintegration of the stone was not detectable.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • If pyelitis or hydronephrosis occur, the prognosis is unfavorable.[henriettes-herb.com]
  • ., hypercalciuria and low urine volume forms calcium cystals Prognosis small stones are more likely to spontaneously pass Presentation Symptoms colicky flank pain pain may radiate to the groin or lower abdomen dysuria urgency and frequency Physical exam[medbullets.com]
  • Expectations (prognosis) Kidney stones are painful but usually are excreted without causing permanent damage. They tend to return, especially if the underlying cause is not found and treated.[endocrinesurgery.ucla.edu]
  • & pain management (opiates) Anti-spasmodics (Ca-channel blockers, alpha antagonists) may hasten stone passage by 5-7 days No role for corticosteroids Check BMP after diagnosis Prevention of Ca oxalate stone Ca supplements may help Thiazide diurects Prognosis[lecturio.com]

Etiology

  • Abstract Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction is a well-studied phenomenon in terms of its etiology, implications for renal function, and clinical management.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Cystinuria is a rare etiology of nephroliathiasis but must be considered in the pediatric population and in those patients with recurrent nephrolithiasis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A review of the literature failed to provide any definite common etiologic factors, although the possible role of systemic infection cannot be ruled out.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • No etiological agent for the rapidly recurring concrements could be detected until Ureaplasma urealyticum cultures were performed at the time of the seventh operation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • BACKGROUND: The prevalence and etiology of nephrolithiasis vary, depending on geography, gender and ethnicity. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the demographic data of return nephrolithiasis patients in a tertiary care center.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Epidemiology

  • Electronic address: vanbatavij@email.chop.edu. 2 Division of Urology and Epidemiology, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, USA; Division of Urology and Center for Pediatric Clinical[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The Epidemiology of Nephrolithiasis and Chronic Kidney Disease Project investigates underlying pathogenic factors to explain this association.[mayo.edu]
  • KEYWORDS: Diet; Epidemiology; Kidney calculi; Nephrolithiasis[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • 10461, USA. 3 University of Utah Department of Radiology, 30 North 1900 East #1A071, Salt Lake City, UT, 84132, USA. 4 Children's Emergency Services, Dayton Children's Hospital, 1 Children's Plaza, Dayton, OH, 45404, USA. 5 Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • This primer aims to establish baseline epidemiologic and pathophysiologic principles to guide clinicians in sodium-directed primary prevention of kidney stone disease. Copyright 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • This article discusses the relationship between renal calculi and UPJ obstruction as it pertains to their pathophysiology and clinical management as combined entities.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We use this case to illustrate the pathophysiology of indinavir stones and hypothesize how they can occur years after discontinuation by discussing the pharmacokinetics of the drug.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The oxalate stones and treatment response indicated a CD-like pathophysiology. Nephrolithiasis might be a rare but noticeable extra-intestinal presentation of pediatric IBD.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The underlying pathophysiologic changes following bariatric surgery include increased colonic absorption of oxalate leading to hyperoxaluria, hypocitraturia and increased urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation, which predispose to stone formation.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Moreover, all publications over the past decade which assessed changes in bone mineral density and bone quality, or explored underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of bone and kidney stone disease were carefully reviewed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prevention

  • Adequate water intake is the most important conservative strategy in urolithiasis prevention; particularly hydropinotherapy with oligomineral water should be considered as an important instrument to prevent stones in subjects predisposed to the disease[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment of pica may prove effective in preventing recurrent nephrolithiasis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • KEYWORDS: Diet; Diet therapy; Nephrolithiasis; Primary prevention; Sodium, dietary[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • An understanding of renovascular anatomy, use of a safety guide wire and intraoperative availability of an angiographic balloon catheter may help to prevent and to treat bleeding problems.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Urinary tract calculi, if detected, should be dealt with promptly to prevent renal damage due to urinary obstruction and urosepsis.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Ask Question

5000 Characters left Format the text using: # Heading, **bold**, _italic_. HTML code is not allowed.
By publishing this question you agree to the TOS and Privacy policy.
• Use a precise title for your question.
• Ask a specific question and provide age, sex, symptoms, type and duration of treatment.
• Respect your own and other people's privacy, never post full names or contact information.
• Inappropriate questions will be deleted.
• In urgent cases contact a physician, visit a hospital or call an emergency service!