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Neurological Disorder

Foreign Accent Syndrome


Presentation

  • Paraneoplastic neurological disorders are uncommon presentations of head and neck cancers. We present a case of a 68-year-old male patient who presented with dizziness, nausea and memory problems.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • RESULTS: The median age (range) at presentation was 10 months (range, 2 days-54 years). Of the 15 patients, 9 presented with epileptic seizures, 5 with motor abnormalities, and 1 with developmental delay.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We present here a novel observation of an approximately 253-kb deletion between BP1 and BP2 on 15q11.2, in a 3(1/2)-year-old boy, who was referred to us with a clinical suspicion of having Angelman syndrome and presenting with mental retardation, neurological[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The treatment and disposition of patients with neurological disorders is commonplace in the emergency setting, but atypical and uncommon presentations can prove to be especially challenging.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • A disseminated relapsing neurological disorder presented simultaneously in two sisters. Encephalitic features were present in one case. The illness was associated with a significant increase in rubella specific IgM in both sisters.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Falling
  • For the prevention of falls, individual fall risk assessment is the necessary first step.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • These attacks may cause the patients to fall rigidly, while remaining fully conscious.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • If the insulation cracks or peels away, then the TV might flicker or the radio may just fall silent. The insulation around a neuron is called a myelin sheath.[study.com]
  • Parkinson’s disease  Gait  Flexed/stooped posture  Difficulty defending balance  Difficulty initiating walking (‘freezing’)  Steps small and shuffling  Festinant  Normal arm swing lost  Risk of falls 24. Posture 25.[slideshare.net]
  • Neurological disorders can also be caused due to trauma (accidents/ falls etc.) and unhealthy habits. Most of these problems require medical or surgical management.[astermedcity.com]
Acute Intermittent Porphyria
  • Acute intermittent porphyria can give rise to acute psychosis, often in association with abdominal pain.[jnnp.bmj.com]
Difficulty Walking
  • Symptoms may include: problems with learning and memory, including amnesia forgetfulness poor coordination difficulty walking Alcoholic neuropathy This condition occurs when the peripheral nerves are damaged by too much alcohol.[healthline.com]
Small Head
  • The increase in Guillain-Barre cases is appearing in conjunction with the spread of the Zika virus to 34 countries and also with increasing cases of microcephaly, a rare condition in which infants are born with abnormally small heads.[eu.usatoday.com]
  • Guillain-Barré Syndrome joins microcephaly —a condition that causes abnormally small heads in newborns—as a Zika-linked disorder. The virus is primarily spread through mosquitoes, but sexual transmission is also possible.[gizmodo.com]
  • But in early 2015, Brazil experienced an outbreak of the virus that coincided with a steep increase in the number of babies born with abnormally small heads.[theverge.com]
Visual Hallucination
  • The anatomy of conscious vision: an fMRI study of visual hallucinations. Nat Neurosci 1998 ; 1 : 738 –42. Cummings JL, Mega MS. Neuropsychiatry and behavioural neuroscience. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.[jnnp.bmj.com]
Onset in Infancy
  • Startle symptomatology has generally an onset in infancy and is often accompanied, during the first years of life, by rigidity, sleep myoclonus, motor delay, regurgitation and apneic spells, which may cause sudden death.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Nystagmus
  • Migraine, tachycardia, intention tremor, nystagmus and cervical dystonia were observed in isolated individuals.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • […] columns of the spinal cord; characterized by muscular weakness and abnormal gait; occurs in children hereditary cerebellar ataxia nervous disorder of late childhood and early adulthood; characterized by ataxic gait and hesitating or explosive speech and nystagmus[vocabulary.com]
  • Symptoms may include: unsteady walk tremor in the trunk of the body jerky movements of the arms or legs slurred speech rapid movements of the eyes, called nystagmus Alcoholic myopathy Alcohol affects muscle fibers causing alcoholic myopathy.[healthline.com]
  • Gaze-evoked nystagmus is common. All patients have gait ataxia and the majority have lower limb ataxia. Less than 10% of patients with GA will have any GI symptoms; however, about half of the patients will have CD on biopsy.[doi.org]
Apathy
  • FvFTD, exemplified here, often presents first to a psychiatrist, typically with a blunting of emotions, apathy, and egocentricity.[jnnp.bmj.com]
  • […] neurodegenerative diseases include: Huntington’s disease ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), or Lou Gehrig’s disease Parkinson’s disease all forms of dementia Some of the more common symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases include: memory loss forgetfulness apathy[healthline.com]
Paresthesia
  • Occult spinal dysraphism sequence Ohtahara syndrome Olivopontocerebellar atrophy Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome Optic neuritis Orthostatic hypotension Otosclerosis Overuse syndrome P [ edit ] Palinopsia Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration Paresthesia[en.wikipedia.org]
Unable to Walk
  • A significant overall feature was the high level of neurological disability leading to 3 of 4 members being unable to walk or stand unaided before the age of 60 years.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
Phenylketonuria
  • For more information, please visit: Spina Bifida Association of America Back to top Phenylketonuria (PKU) PKU is an inherited metabolic disorder in which the body cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine that is present in many common foods.[firstsigns.org]

Treatment

  • After an 8-day hospital course, which included several different treatment modalities including plasmapheresis, the patient was discharged after making a complete recovery.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment utilizing vitamin E might be extremely easy, safe, and inexpensive compared with the dopaminergic agents or opioids usually recommended for treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Thus, after 18 months of investigation, severe depressive episodes and difficult collaboration of the patient with the medical team, it was possible to reach the definitive diagnosis and to perform the appropriate treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The effects of miglustat on patient ambulation, fine and gross motor function, swallowing, hearing, speech, seizures, psychomotor development, and ocular movements were evaluated for up to 26 months of treatment.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Modifying Treatment in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Simulation Study .”[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]

Prognosis

  • Drug-Resistant Seizures Often Take Years to Develop January 2003 press release on new findings regarding the prognosis of partial epilepsy.[webmd.com]
  • Prognosis In the absence of treatment, clinical progression leads to death within a few years. The documents contained in this web site are presented for information purposes only.[orpha.net]
  • Intracerebral haemorrhage  10% of all strokes  Large haematomas have poor prognosis ( 50% mortality) – risk of hydrocephalus and coning  Causes  Hypertension  Bleeding into tumours  Trauma  Blood disorders  Blood vessel disorders 34.[slideshare.net]

Etiology

  • This article addresses etiology, clinical manifestations, importance of early diagnosis and pharmacological treatment. Nursing interventions for the TS patient will also be discussed.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The etiology is thought to be autoimmune, and is most commonly associated with encephalitis or paraneoplastic syndrome.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease is a rare childhood neurological disorder of uncertain etiology that is treatable if suspected and diagnosed. Only few cases have been reported earlier in literature.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • The significance of the early WM changes for the etiology of these diseases is largely unknown.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Etiology GD type 3 is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a mutation in the GBA gene (1q21) that codes for the lysosomal enzyme, glucocerebrosidase.[orpha.net]

Epidemiology

  • This hypothesis can explain many aspects of RLS, including symptoms as well as epidemiological findings.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • More clinical studies are needed to establish unequivocally the epidemiological relationships between preexisting neurological deficits-resulting either from genetic, developmental, traumatic, or neurotoxic factors- and vulnerability to drug addictions[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Biological Psychiatry 7 (2): 147–52. [ PubMed : 4748846 ] Forsgren L, Beghi E, Oun A, Sillanpaa M. 2005. “ The Epidemiology of Epilepsy in Europe—A Systematic Review .”[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Taiwanese Society of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Related topics Anti-psychiatry Behavioral medicine Clinical neuroscience Imaging genetics Neuroimaging Neurophysiology Philosophy of psychiatry Political abuse of psychiatry Psychiatrist Psychiatric epidemiology[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Specific interests include Alzheimer's disease, familial dementias and genetic studies, mild cognitive impairment, cholinergics and anticholinergics in delirium and dementia, vascular dementia, epidemiology of dementia in African-Americans, management[emoryhealthcare.org]
Sex distribution
Age distribution

Pathophysiology

  • Abstract OBJECTIVE: Affective symptoms influence health status (health-related quality of life) in functional neurological disorder (FND), and the salience network is implicated in the pathophysiology of FND and mood/anxiety disorders.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • DESIGN: This is an observational diagnostic study of multiple neurological diseases and their pathophysiology.[clinicaltrials.gov]
  • Development of new imaging methods help us understand the pathophysiology of aneurysm development and the risk of rupture.[omicsonline.org]
  • Multiple sclerosis  Pathophysiology  Affects white matter of brain and spinal cord  Inflammatory cells present and myelin damaged  Foci of inflammation and demyelination known as plaques  Initially inflammation and oedema, followed by loss of myelin[slideshare.net]

Prevention

  • Although innominate artery transection for innominate artery compression of the trachea is recently used for prevention of life-threatening complications (e.g. massive bleeding and obstructive apnoea) in patients with neurological disorders, pre-existing[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • We suggest that centromere inactivation results from a modified conformation of the functional DNA sequences preventing normal binding to centromere specific proteins.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • For the prevention of falls, individual fall risk assessment is the necessary first step.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Centers of Disease Control and Preventions, GBS symptoms include muscle weakness and sometimes paralysis. In the most serious cases, the muscle weakness can affect breathing and patients may need a breathing tube.[eu.usatoday.com]
  • Prevention of stroke can be achieved by identifying and controlling personal risk factors such as high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, high cholesterol, diabetes and circulation problems.[stroke.global-summit.com]

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