Night Terrors (Pavor Nocturnus)

Pavor nocturnus (night terror, sleep terror) is a parasomnia disorder characterized by panicky awakening, fear and signs of autonomic arousal (tachypnea, flushing, diaphoresis, tachycardia).


Presentation

urogenital
Nocturnal Enuresis
  • Bruxism (grinding of teeth), nocturnal enuresis (considered by some to be a parasomnia) and night terrors were the most common types. [ 3 ] Risk factors One study found that arousal parasomnias were associated with sleep apnoea, alcohol intake at bedtime[patient.info]
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  • psychiatrical
    Fear
    • Through Alex's photo album, the Doctor learns that George has been frightened all his life, fearing many of the sounds and people around the flat and is helped to cope by various habits, including metaphorically placing his fears in his wardrobe.[en.wikipedia.org]
    • Read some stories to your child about getting over nighttime fears.[chop.edu]
    • Night terrors are frequent, recurring episodes of screaming, crying, panic or fear during sleep. Night terrors usually occur within two hours of the time a child goes to sleep. They are harmless, and each episode will end in deep sleep.[cincinnatichildrens.org]
    Delusion
    • Cause unclear The study researchers aren't sure why nighttime frights are linked with delusions and hallucinations.[livescience.com]
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  • cardiovascular
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  • gastrointestinal
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  • respiratoric
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  • neurologic
    Insomnia
    • Night Terrors in Young Children – Baby, Infant, Toddlers Causes of Child Insomnia – Children, Infant, Toddler, Teen[healthhype.com]
    • Insomnia is usually treated with medications, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), or a change in bedtime habits and routine.[healthline.com]
    • RLS tends to cause insomnia due to a constant, involuntary irritation of the legs causing their movement, on retiring to bed.[patient.info]
    • "Depression, Night Terrors, and Insomnia Associated with Long-Term Intrathecal Clonidine Therapy". Pain Practice . 7 (1): 36–8. doi : 10.1111/j.1533-2500.2007.00108.x . PMID 17305677 . "Mental and behavioural disorders" . McMillan, Julia A. (2006).[en.wikipedia.org]
    Somnambulism
    • Sleepwalking (somnambulism) : Sleepwalking is another type of disorder of arousal and occurs when a person appears to be awake and moving around with eyes wide open but is actually asleep. Sleepwalkers generally have no memory of their actions.[my.clevelandclinic.org]
    • In the American Psychiatric Association (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition ( DSM-5 ), one common parasomnia, non-REM (NREM) sleep arousal disorder, is described as being characterized by either somnambulism (ie,[emedicine.medscape.com]
    Temporary Amnesia
    • That leaves a person extremely disoriented, sometimes to the point of temporary amnesia. More: 9 Fun Outdoor Activities to Do With Your Kid 9. Keep your little one sleeping in a crib until they outgrow their night terrors, if possible.[sheknows.com]
    • That leaves a person extremely disoriented, sometimes to the point of temporary amnesia. 9. Keep your son sleeping in a crib until he outgrows his night terrors , if possible.[ahaparenting.com]
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  • Face, Head & Neck
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  • Entire body system
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  • Fetus
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  • Workup

    Treatment

    Prognosis

    Complications

    Hallucinations
    • Cause unclear The study researchers aren't sure why nighttime frights are linked with delusions and hallucinations.[livescience.com]
    • It's a shocking and fearsome hallucination that arises after waking suddenly from a deep, dreamless sleep.[world-of-lucid-dreaming.com]
    Nocturnal Enuresis
    • Bruxism (grinding of teeth), nocturnal enuresis (considered by some to be a parasomnia) and night terrors were the most common types. [ 3 ] Risk factors One study found that arousal parasomnias were associated with sleep apnoea, alcohol intake at bedtime[patient.info]
    Neoplasm
    • Brainstem neoplasms. A recent association with narcolepsy has also been discovered. [ 14 ] There appears to be an association between parasomnias in early life and the later development of vitiligo.[patient.info]

    Etiology

    Epidemiology

    Sex distribution
    Age distribution

    Pathophysiology

    Prevention

    Summary

    Patient Information

    Other symptoms

    Stiffness
    • The actors portraying the dolls were choreographed to move with stiff legs but swing their arms.[en.wikipedia.org]
    Levodopa
    • The successful treatment of sexsomnia with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been reported. [ 8 ] Levodopa/carbidopa, gabapentin and clonidine are sometimes used but there is little systematic evidence of benefit.[patient.info]
    No Obesity
    • Overeating during sleepwalking, leading to obesity. Relationship difficulties. Forensic consequences of behaviour during sleepwalking, particularly if the patient ventures into the outside world or displays sexual behaviour.[patient.info]

    Self-assessment

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    References

    1. [Prevalence of sleep disorders in school children between 11 and 15 years of age] - OS Ipsiroglu, A Fatemi, I Werner - Wiener klinische , 2001 - ukpmc.ac.uk
    2. [Prevalence of sleep disorders in school children between 11 and 15 years of age] - OS Ipsiroglu, A Fatemi, I Werner - Wiener klinische , 2001 - ukpmc.ac.uk
    3. A polysomnographic and clinical report on sleep-related injury in 100 adult patients - CH Schenck, DM Milner, TD Hurwitz - Am J , 1989 - Am Psychiatric Assoc
    4. A psychophysiological study of nightmares and night terrors: I. Physiological aspects of the stage 4 night terror - C Fisher, E Kahn, A Edwards - The Journal of nervous , 1973 - journals.lww.com


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