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Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome

Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep %2F PLMS


  • Sudhansu Chokroverty—a world-recognized expert in sleep medicine—presents the third edition of Sleep Disorders Medicine for the latest developments in this rapidly expanding specialty, with coverage of neuroscience and clinical application.[books.google.com]
  • On the other hand, symptomatic nocturnal myoclonus is typically associated with restless legs syndrome; in this condition, it is usually severe and present also during wakefulness. The exact site of origin of nocturnal myoclonus is unknown.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • But there is a difference; people with restless leg syndrome may suffer from nocturnal myoclonus syndrome, however former condition is not present with nocturnal myoclonus syndrome.[tandurust.com]
  • They, however, complain of sleepiness and fatigue during the day.[holistic-online.com]
  • Sleep interruptions and constant muscle spasms can lead to excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue.[ic.steadyhealth.com]
  • Feeling fatigued and worn out the next morning due to lack of sleep and constant muscle spasms. Treatment Options There are certain medications available to help patients cope with the twitching and muscle jerks.[buzzle.com]
  • […] sleeping and occasionally when the person is awake can occasionally cause restless movements of the feet or toes in the evening, when a person is sitting or lying down can make falling asleep difficult and can awaken the person from sleep contribute to fatigue[medicineonline.com]
  • They can, however, be implicated as a contributing factor in chronic insomnia and/or daytime fatigue because they may cause awakenings during the night.[sleepfoundation.org]
Excessive Daytime Sleepiness
  • Sleep interruptions and constant muscle spasms can lead to excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue.[ic.steadyhealth.com]
  • Limb movements can be severe enough to wake an individual from sleep, making it difficult to stay asleep for a significant duration and leading to excessive daytime sleepiness.[queenslandsleep.com.au]
  • As many as 12.2 percent of people suffering from insomnia and 3.5 percent of those suffering from excessive daytime sleepiness may experience PLMD.[healthcommunities.com]
  • As many as 12.2% of patients suffering from insomnia and 3.5% of patients suffering from excessive daytime sleepiness may experience PLMD.[dormirpr.com]
  • These frequent limb movements can disrupt your sleep and may cause you or your bed partner to have insomnia, restless sleep, or excessive daytime sleepiness.[sleepmedicine.com]
Nocturnal Awakening
  • The patient may experience a history of frequent nocturnal awakenings and unrefreshing sleep. Patients unaware of the sleep interruptions may have symptoms of excessive sleepiness.[sleepdisordersguide.com]
  • As a result, they have difficulty falling asleep, repeated nocturnal awakenings, or both. Symptoms may be worsened by stress.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Stretching, kicking, or walking relieves symptoms; RLS interferes with falling asleep and/or may cause repeated nocturnal awakenings. Approximately 80% of patients with RLS also have PLMD.[uspharmacist.com]
  • Tissue pathways for urological pathology The target primary users of the tissue pathway are trainee and consultant cellular pathologists. These recommendations will also be of value to trainee/qualified biomedical scientists involved in...[evidence.nhs.uk]
  • Chapters on Couvade syndrome, menstrually related mood disturbance, obesity, keratoconus, and anorexia nervosa examine the degree to which psychological and physical events interact in conditions usually considered attributable essentially to a single[books.google.com]
  • Seite 130 - The syndrome of anosmia with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: a genetic study of 18 new families and a review. Am J Med Genet 1983;15:417-435. ‎ Seite 121 - Jeffery DR, Mandler RN, Davis LE. Transverse myelitis.[books.google.de]
Loss of Appetite
  • Levodopa/carbidopa may cause nausea, headache, and loss of appetite. What happens after treatment for the condition? Treatment of restless leg syndrome is lifelong.[medicineonline.com]
Motor Restlessness
  • Two patients reported a partial and 9 patients a complete relieve of motor restlessness while receiving Pergolide. Only 1 patient experienced an improvement of restlessness after L-Dopa.[springerlink.com]
  • Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is characterised by - (i) the desire to move the limbs, usually associated with paraesthesias, (ii) motor restlessness, (iii) symptoms worse or present exclusively at rest with atleast temporary or partial relief by activity[neurologyindia.com]
Psychiatric Symptoms
  • Psychiatric distress frequently finds expression in physical ailment or pain, and chronic physical illness or disability is a common exacerbant of psychiatric symptoms.[books.google.com]
Sleep Disturbance
  • NMS is often related with restless-legs syndrome (RLS) and can cause severe sleep disturbances and daytime sleepiness. The efficacy of dopamine agonists in the treatment points to a dopaminergic dysfunction in NMS.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Understand the various causes of this common movement and sleep disturbance and identify the best treatment options in each case.[books.google.com]
  • The movements are often linked with a partial arousal or awakening; however, the patient is usually unaware of the limb movements or the frequent sleep disturbance.[sleepdisordersguide.com]
  • . • Periodic limb movement disorder is diagnosed when movements occur at a rate of more than 5 per hour in children or 15 per hour in adults, causing clinically significant sleep disturbance or impairment in mental, physical, social, occupational, educational[medlink.com]
  • It is certain that these conditions often cause insomnia, and some research shows that they might also be caused by other sleep disturbances.[queenslandsleep.com.au]
Myoclonic Jerking
  • It has frequently been confused with, and should be clearly differentiated from, other normal jerking movements of sleep, such as partial myoclonic jerks and massive myoclonic jerks, or sleep starts.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Clonazepam given in small doses could be effective for myoclonic jerk.[epilepsy.com]
  • Myoclonic jerks usually affect the whole body, with muscles on both sides of the body affected simultaneously.[ninds.nih.gov]
  • Essential myoclonus In this type, the myoclonic jerks or twitches are usually the most prominent or only clinical finding. This type of myoclonus usually progresses slowly or not at all.[rarediseases.org]
  • Myoclonic jerks may occur alone or in sequence, in a pattern or without pattern. They may occur infrequently or many times each minute. Myoclonus sometimes occurs in response to an external event or when a person attempts to make a movement.[tuck.com]
  • Dizziness and somnolence are the most common adverse effects. However, use of this drug to treat RLS has not been extensively studied.[merckmanuals.com]
  • Periodic Leg Movements occur in three grades: mild – when 5 to 24 movements/hour occur, resulting in daytime somnolence; moderate – when 25 to 49 movements/hour occur, resulting in moderate insomnia and somnolence, and severe – when more than 50 movements[nature.com]
  • Parasomnia · Sleep apnea · Sleep deprivation · Sleeping sickness · Sleepwalking · Somniloquy Benign phenomena Dream · Exploding head syndrome · False awakening · Hypnagogia · Hypnic jerk · Lucid dream · Nightmare · Nocturnal emission · Sleep paralysis · Somnolence[dormirpr.com]
  • The condition is remarkably periodic, and the movements may cause poor sleep and subsequent daytime somnolence.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • PLMS may be responsible for difficulties in initiating and maintaining sleep and for sleep fragmentation with consequent daytime somnolence.[practicalneurology.com]


  • […] replace conventional medical treatment.[drweyrich.weyrich.com]
  • Abstract In previous investigations we found an increase of D2 dopamine receptors in the striatum of patients with nocturnal myoclonus syndrome (NMS) after treatment with dopamimetics.[ncbi.nlm.nih.gov]
  • Treatment & Monitoring What are the treatments for the condition? Treatment of restless leg syndrome begins with correction of any underlying disease or condition. For example, iron or folic acid supplements may be given to correct anemia.[medicineonline.com]
  • References Akpinar S (1982) Treatment of restless Legs syndrome with levodopa plus benserazid.[springerlink.com]


  • Long-term prognosis for symptomatic (secondarily) generalized epilepsies: a population-based study. Epilepsia. 2007;48(6):1128-32. Abraham A, Elena C, Melamed E, Djaldetti R. Successful treatment of truncal myoclonus.[rarediseases.org]
  • Prognosis The idiopathic form of this syndrome may be chronic. Relapses and remissions may occur, but treatment does not appear to modify the disease. The secondary form of this syndrome may cease with treatment of the underlying cause.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome: a new era of improved prognosis? Pediatr Neurol. 2017;72:65-9. Jankovic, J. Therapeutic developments for tics and myoclonus. Mov Disord. 2015;30(11):8. Jankovic J, Shannon KM. Movement disorders.[bcm.edu]
  • The events appear very frightening for carers but have a good prognosis. When reflex anoxic seizures are very frequent, atropine or cardiac pacing may be considered.[epilepsydiagnosis.org]


  • There is etiological uncertainty for nocturnal myoclonus syndrome in its primary form. Certain secondary conditions can precipitate the conditions and they are: Uremia. Diabetes mellitus. Rheumatoid arthritis. Spinal cord tumor or injury. Anemia.[tandurust.com]
  • Etiology The etiology of the primary form of periodic limb movement disorder is uncertain. Suprasegmental disinhibition of the descending inhibitory pathways may be a factor.[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Little is known about the etiology of symptomatic PLMS and RLS in multiple sclerosis (MS).[dovepress.com]
  • The etiology of non-epileptic seizures is heterogeneous, with different predisposing, precipitating and promoting factors in different affected individuals.[epilepsydiagnosis.org]
  • […] the hypothalamus (hypothalamic A11 nucleus) with descending pathways that target the preganglionic sympathetic neurons—the dorsal horn region, the interneurons, and the somatic motor neurons, has been hypothesized as being intimately involved in the etiology[practicalneurology.com]


  • Actigraphy offers a convenient and economical alternative to polysomnography in the study of large populations to increase our understanding of the epidemiology and clinical significance of the PLMs. 10 Physicians must note that actigraphy alone should[practicalneurology.com]
  • However, co-careldopa and, to a lesser extent, pergolide may shift the leg movements from the nighttime to the daytime. [3] Clonazepam (Klonopin), in doses of 1 mg has been shown to improve objective and subjective measures of sleep. [4] Epidemiology[en.wikipedia.org]
  • Epidemiology studies of periodic limb movements A high prevalence of periodic limb movements was found in elderly women according to an observational study from 2006 in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine.[tuck.com]
  • […] periodic limb movement disorder include the following: Sleep apnea Cataplexy Drug dependency Benzodiazepine withdrawal Barbiturate withdrawal Neuroleptic medication Dopaminergic medication Uremia Anemia Iron deficiency Spinal cord injury Diabetes mellitus Epidemiology[emedicine.medscape.com]
Sex distribution
Age distribution


  • In this article, the authors examine the clinical significance of periodic limb movements in sleep and advances in understanding the pathophysiology of this disorder.[medlink.com]
  • Vetrugno and colleagues report that evidence supports neuronal hyperexcitability with involvement of the central pattern generator for gait as the pathophysiology of periodic limb movement. [1] This results in decreased dopamine transmission, potentially[emedicine.medscape.com]
  • Impairment in brain iron availability 26,27 and the link between iron deficiency and reduction in central dopaminergic tone 28,29 coupled with the knowledge that central dopamine signaling exhibits a daily rhythm with a nadir in the evening, 30 support the pathophysiologic[practicalneurology.com]
  • Abnormal H-reflexes in periodic limb movement disorder; impact on understanding the pathophysiology of the disorder. Clin Neurophysiol. 2005;116(1):204–210. 5. Tergau F, Wischer S, Paulus W.[dovepress.com]
  • Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach . 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Inc; 2011:1241-1251. 8. WebMD . Sleep Disorders Health Center. Sleep disorders and periodic limb movement disorder.[uspharmacist.com]


  • Prevention & Expectations What can be done to prevent the condition? There is no sure way to prevent restless leg syndrome. Controlling diseases and conditions that contribute to the syndrome can help limit the intensity of the symptoms.[medicineonline.com]
  • After all, restless leg syndrome prevents sufferers from falling asleep; periodic leg movement disorder can prevent sufferers from getting a good night’s sleep even after dozing off.[alaskasleep.com]
  • The constant need to stretch or move the legs to eliminate the uncomfortable or painful feelings often prevents a person with RLS from falling asleep.[lahey.org]
  • But for millions of Americans who suffer from sleep movement disorders, it’s the uncontrollable twitching once they climb into bed that prevents them from sleeping in the first place.[sleepfoundation.org]
  • What causes this and what can be done to prevent it? A: Your husband's problem may be one of two syndromes: nocturnal myoclonus syndrome or restless legs syndrome.[articles.chicagotribune.com]

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